In Designing Learning and Technology for Educational Reform (Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, & Rasmussen, 1994), the authors note that technology effectiveness can be defined as the intersection of two continuums.
One continuum describes learning, which progresses from passive learning to engaged and sustained learning. For this continuum, the authors selected a set of learning indicators for engaged learning and instructional reform. The other continuum, which describes technology performance, progresses from low to high technology performance. For this continuum, the authors defined technology indicators for instructional design and technology-enhanced learning.
When the two continuums are combined, four major learning and technology patterns emerge:
Schools are strongly encouraged to focus their vision for using technology primarily in Categories A and B.