Snow, Burns, and Griffin (1998, p. 80) list the following accomplishments
in reading for kindergartners. This list includes a wide range of behaviors
and underscores the fact that literacy acquisition exists along a continuum.
All children may not have the same accomplishments at the same time.
Accomplishments in Reading
- Knows the parts of a book and their functions.
- Begins to track print when listening to a familiar text being read
or when rereading own writing.
- "Reads" familiar texts emergently (i.e., not necessarily
verbatim from the print alone).
- Recognizes and can name all uppercase and lowercase letters.
- Understands that the sequence of letters in a written word represents
the sequence of sound (phonemes) in a spoken word (alphabetic principle).
- Learns many, though not all, one-to-one letter-sound correspondences.
- Recognizes some words by sight, including a few very common ones
(a, the, I, my, you, is, are).
- Uses new vocabulary and grammatical constructions in own speech.
- Makes appropriate switches from oral to written language situations.
- Notices when simple sentences fail to make sense.
- Connects information and events in texts to life and life to text
- Retells, reenacts, or dramatizes stories or parts of stories.
- Listens attentively to books teacher reads to class.
- Can name some book titles and authors.
- Demonstrates familiarity with a number of types or genres of text
(e.g., storybooks, expository texts, poems, newspapers, and everyday
print such as signs, notices, labels).
- Correctly answers questions about stories read aloud.
- Makes predictions based on illustrations or portions of stories.
- Demonstrates understanding that spoken words consist of a sequences
- Given spoken sets like "dan, dan, den," can identify the
first two as being the same and the third as different.
- Given spoken sets like "dak, pat, zen," can identify the
first two as sharing a same sound.
- Given spoken segments, can merge them into a meaningful target word.
- Given a spoken word, can produce another word that rhymes with it.
- Independently writes many uppercase and lowercase letters.
- Uses phonemic awareness and letter knowledge to spell independently
(invented or creative spelling).
- Writes (unconventionally) to express own meaning.
- Builds a repertoire of some conventionally spelled words.
- Shows awareness of distinction between "kid writing" and
- Writes own name (first and last) and the first names of some friends
- Can write most letters and some words when they are dictated.
Note: From Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children
(p. 80), by C.E. Snow, M.S. Burns, and P. Griffin (Eds.), 1998, Washington,
DC: National Academy Press. Copyright 1998 by National Academy of Sciences.
Reprinted with permission.
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