In "Transforming Managers for Organizational Change," Paul O'Neill (1990) summarizes the work of Edgar Schein, which was built on the earlier work of Kurt Lewin, in developing a model for organizational change. Schein's model features three stages of change:
Schein reports that three variables are critical to the success of any change in the culture of the organization: (1) the degree to which the leaders can make a clean break with past practices; (2) the significance and comprehensiveness of the change; and (3) the extent to which the head of the organization is proactively involved in the changes.
The connection to implementing systemic reform is clear. Each stage of change will require extensive involvement by all stakeholders in the organization who are likely to be affected by the change. Systemic reform of science education will require leaders who understand and are committed to the reforms, teachers who are given the necessary time and support to learn and accept the reforms, and community members who understand and support the changes being made in their schools.