Principles That Reflect Appropriate Use of Standards
Reigeluth (1997) says that educators should promote the use of standards according to the following principles of a learning-focused (customized, learner-centered, results-oriented) approach to education:
- Various levels of attainment. There should be various levels
of student achievement in each area of competence.
- No timetables for achieving the standards. All students
are not capable of attaining the same level of achievement at the same time.
- Standards in all areas. Standards should be available not
only in academics but in all areas of learning and human development--in civic
as well as workplace preparation.
- Learning-focused instructional processes. Instructional
practices should allow students to work on a standard until it is achieved.
Students also could be working on different standards at the same time.
- Performance-based measures. The standards should be specific
enough that performance-based assessment can determine if the student has
met the standard.
- Certification of standards. This form of certification
would be more descriptive than a high school diploma in presenting what the
student has mastered.
- Positive incentives for meeting standards. Students are
more likely to meet standards if they are given positive incentives.
- Limitations of standards. Attainment of standards alone
cannot capture the other skills and abilities a student has to offer.
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