That Inhibit the Implementation of High-Achieving
Changes in urban schools can be addressed on several fronts, and
many different, overlapping efforts will need to be coordinated.
Williams and Newcombe (1994, pp. 77-78) list several factors that
may inhibit the implementation of high-achieving learning
environments in urban schools:
- Belief systems about culture, intelligence, and the abilities
of urban learners and about the teacher's role in learning need
to be addressed and changed.
- Highly rigid and inflexible district, state, and federal
guidelines should be relaxed or waived to encourage new
approaches to teaching and learning.
- Reforms should have a clear and coordinated focus - with
multiple reforms, coordination can become fragmented.
- Staff need sufficient time to learn about urban learners and
participate in professional development activities to redesign
curriculum and instruction and reshape teaching.
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