Zeichner (1993) identifies the following key elements for teaching ethnic- and language-minority students:
- "Teachers have a clear sense of their own ethnic and cultural identities.
- High expectations for the success of all students (and a belief that all students can succeed) are communicated to students.
- Teachers are personally committed to achieving equity for all students and believe that they are capable of making a difference in their students' learning.
- Teachers have developed a personal bond with their students and cease seeing their students as 'the other.'
- Students are provided with an academically challenging curriculum that includes attention to the development of higher level cognitive skills.
- Instruction focuses on the creation of meaning about content by students in an interactive and collaborative learning environment.
- Learning tasks are often seen as meaningful by students.
- The curriculum is inclusive of the contributions and perspectives of the different ethnocultural groups that make up the society.
- Scaffolding is provided by teachers that links the academically challenging and inclusive curriculum to the cultural resources that students bring to school.
- Teachers explicitly teach students the culture of the school and seek to maintain students' sense of ethnocultural pride and identity.
- Parents and community members are encouraged to become involved in students' education and are given a significant voice in making important school decisions in relation to program (i.e., sources and staffing).
- Teachers are involved in political struggles outside of the classroom aimed at achieving a more just and humane society." (p. 23)