Effective Learning Models and Frameworks to Design Professional Development
A variety of conceptual frameworks can be useful in planning and designing
professional development. These frameworks help ensure that a plan relates
to individual and organizational development and to systemic change.
The following frameworks, considered together, provide guidance in planning
comprehensive, systemic professional development:
- The five phases of staff development,
developed by the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (n.d.),
is a framework that describes a professional growth continuum.
- The five models of professional development,
developed by Sparks and Loucks-Horsley (1989), is a framework that ensures
variety in professional development. It also links model purposes(s) with
particular professional and personal learning goals.
- The learning cycle by Loucks-Horsley
(1995), adapted from the National Center for Improving Science Education
(1991), is a helpful tool that enhances learning in any context.
- The systemic planning process provides
guidance by presenting questions in three general phases: initiation and
readiness, implementation, and institutionalization. To ensure attention
is given to all phases of professional development, these questions can
be used as a guide for planning and supporting change initiatives.
- The framework for designing effective
professional development, developed by Cook and Rasmussen (1994), leads
schools through the process of identifying, understanding, planning, carrying
out, and evaluating change.
- The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (Hall & Loucks, 1979) is a conceptual
framework of seven stages of concern
or feelings that teachers and administrators experience as they become
aware of and implement new practices.
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