for Professional Development
Purnell and Hill (1991) identify six general approaches to creating
time for staff development:
- Promote time outside the classroom during the school day (e.g., use
substitutes to free teachers to attend workshops, conferences, observe
- Refocus the purpose of existing time commitments (e.g., use faculty
- Reschedule the school day (e.g., adjustments are made in the master
- Increase the amount of available time (e.g., use of supplemental contracts
and stipends for teachers to attend summer trainings, extend participation
beyond the usual hours).
- Promote teachers volunteering some of their time (e.g., create conducive
conditions such as babysitting services, allocate space for teachers' conference).
- Promote more efficient time use (e.g., make meetings more efficient,
In addition, Raywid (1993) cites a number of examples for creating professional
- Use part or all of faculty, department, or team meetings for professional
- Lengthen the school day for 20 minutes four days per week; use an early
release on the fifth day to provide an extended period of time for professional
- One morning per week, engage students in alternative activities such
as community service that are supervised by parents, community members,
or noninstructional staff; use this time for professional development.
- Provide a common scheduled lunch and planning periods for teachers
working on joint projects.
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