Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) Prevention
Over the years, various ATOD prevention models have drawn from knowledge bases
in education, psychology, and behavioral sciences to identify and systematize
the factors that contribute to ATOD use or non-use. (See "What Does Research Say About
Prevention.") As practitioners translated these models into prevention
programs and "road-tested" them with young people, prevention experts were
to evaluate each model's effectiveness and thus continue the further evolution
of ATOD prevention frameworks.
Prevention research in the 1990s has helped educators understand that
about ATOD use are multifaceted and include many dimensions of a young
skills, capacities, and beliefs. In the past, researchers and practitioners
categorized ATOD prevention in relatively narrow terms: Simply inform young
people about ATOD use, properties, and consequences, and expect young people
abstain from use. As research and evaluation studies provided greater insight
into what worked and why, prevention models based on psychosocial domains predominated. From these evolved
models focusing on risk factors and
protective factors. Most recently, research on the topic of
resiliency has shifted prevention's focus from
children's perceived social and individual deficits (e.g., friends who use
drugs or lack of self-esteem) to their strengths, leading to a more holistic
concept of youth development.
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