Constructivist Teaching and Learning Models
Constructivism is an approach to teaching and learning based on the premise
that cognition (learning) is the result of "mental construction." In other
words, students learn by fitting new information together with what they
already know. Constructivists believe that learning is affected by the context
in which an idea is taught as well as by students' beliefs and attitudes.
Constructivist teaching is based on recent research about the human brain and
what is known about how learning occurs. Caine and Caine (1991) suggest that
brain-compatible teaching is based on 12 principles:
- "The brain is a parallel processor" (p. 80). It simultaneously
processes many different types of information, including thoughts, emotions,
and cultural knowledge. Effective teaching employs a variety of learning
- "Learning engages the entire physiology" (p. 80). Teachers can't address
just the intellect.
- "The search for meaning is innate" (p. 81). Effective teaching recognizes
that meaning is personal and unique, and that students' understandings are based
on their own unique experiences.
- "The search for meaning occurs through 'patterning' " (p. 81). Effective
teaching connects isolated ideas and information with global concepts and
- "Emotions are critical to patterning" (p. 82). Learning is influenced by
emotions, feelings, and attitudes.
- "The brain processes parts and wholes simultaneously" (p. 83). People have
difficulty learning when either parts or wholes are overlooked.
- "Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral perception" (p.
83). Learning is influenced by the environment, culture, and climate.
- "Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes" (p. 84).
Students need time to process 'how' as well as 'what' they've learned.
- "We have at least two different types of memory: a spatial memory system,
and a set of systems for rote learning" (p. 85). Teaching that heavily
emphasizes rote learning does not promote spatial, experienced learning and can
- "We understand and remember best when facts and skills are embedded in
natural, spatial memory" (p. 86). Experiential learning is most effective.
- "Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat" (p. 86). The
classroom climate should be challenging but not threatening to students.
- "Each brain is unique" (p. 87). Teaching must be multifaceted to allow
students to express preferences.
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