of the Writing Process
Gardner and Johnson (1997) describe the stages of the writing process:
"Writing is a fluid process created by writers as they work. Accomplished
writers move back and forth between the stages of the process, both consciously
and unconsciously. Young writers, however, benefit from the structure and
security of following the writing process in their writing.
- Prewriting. Students generate ideas for writing: brainstorming;
reading literature; creating life maps, webs, and story charts; developing
word banks; deciding on form, audience, voice, and purpose as well as through
- Rough Draft. Students get their ideas on paper. They
write without concern for conventions. Written work does not have to be
neat; it is a 'sloppy copy.'
- Reread. Students proof their own work by reading aloud
and reading for sensibility.
- Share with a Peer Revisor. Students share and make suggestions
for improvement: asking who, what, when, where, why, and how questions
about parts of the story the peer does not understand; looking for better
words; and talking about how to make the work better.
- Revise. Improve what the narrative says and how it says it:
write additions, imagery, and details. Take out unnecessary work. Use peer
suggestions to improve. Clarify.
- Editing. Work together on editing for mechanics and spelling.
Make sure the work is 'goof proof.'
- Final Draft. Students produce their final copy to discuss
with the teacher and write a final draft.
- Publishing. Students publish their written pieces: sending
their work to publishers; reading their finished story aloud, making books.
This is a time to celebrate!
In actuality, the writing process is not a highly organized linear process,
but rather a continual movement between the different steps of the writing
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