Bruce and Levin (1997) use the term media in relation to technology use:
"We view the effects of technologies as operating to a large extent through the ways that they alter the environments for thinking, communicating, and acting in the world. Thus, they provide new media for learning, in the sense that one might say land provided new media for creatures to evolve. This view of media encompasses but extends the familiar idea of media as a place to put information. Today, interactive multimedia technology provides us with a new way to draw upon children's natural impulses. These new media hold an abundance of materials, including text, voice, music, graphics, photos, animation, and video. But they provide more than abundance. Bringing all these media together means that we can vastly expand the range of learning experiences, opening up the social and natural worlds. Students can explore the relations among ideas and thus experience a more connected form of learning. Perhaps most importantly, these new media are interactive and conducive to active, engaged learning. Students can choose what to see and do, and they have media to record and extend what they learn. Learning is thus driven by the individual needs and interests of the learner."
Bruce and Levin (1997) note that the focus of the educational technology should not be on the capabilities of the hardware or software but rather on how the learner uses it. They emphasize that when technology is used as a tool to complete a task, the task itself becomes central in importance and the technology is merely a means to approach the task. As students gain knowledge, they also need to be able to think through technology in order to express the concepts they have synthesized. "Learning in almost any subject today means not only learning the concepts within that area, but also how to use technologies in the endeavor," Bruce and Levin (1997) explain. "Thus, the traditional lines between learning about technology and learning through technology are beginning to blur."
For additional information, refer to Educational Technology: Media for Inquiry, Communication, Construction, and Expression (Bruce & Levin, 1997).