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A Bibliography of Research and Resources on
Technology and Engaged Learning


ACT Department of Education and Training & Children's Youth, and Family Sevices Bureau. (1996). Gateways: Information technology in the learning process [Online]. Available:

Case studies of Australian classroom practice using information technology to enhance student learning.

Adriano, C. T., & Shrock, S. A. (1994, February). Teachers' competence, affect, familiarity, and perceived skill regarding instructional technology. Proceedings of selected research and development presentations at the 1994 national convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, sponsored by the Research and Theory Division, February 16-20, Nashville, TN. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 373 699)

While innovation advocates have focused on the need to reform Philippine schools to meet the needs and demands of society, little has been done to change the teachers' practices. Recent studies have pointed to inadequate teacher training as one of the reasons for Filipino students' low achievement. This study was conducted to identify specific variables that contributed significantly to teacher competence, affect, familiarity, and perceived skill. The survey research method utilized was a three-part instrument administered by the principal investigator. Four independent variables were analyzed: place of work, academic subject, years of teaching experience, and training in instructional technology. Findings suggest specific variables significant in designing a curriculum for preparing teachers in implementing educational programs. The results of the competence test of this study imply a need for training in the use of instructional design and in the instructional technology field. (Contains 28 references.)

Advanced Technology Group. (1997). Apple K-12 effectiveness reports [Online]. Available:

Full-text online reports summarize research (done by Apple or others) on the effectiveness of technology in language arts, math, science, reading and writing, social studies, management and administration, and preparing students for the workplace.

Agency for Instructional Technology. (1987). A survey of the use of technology with students at risk of school failure. Bloomington, IN: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 295 591)

This report presents the findings of a survey ("Programs and Activities Using Technology to Serve Students at Risk of School Failure") of a sampling of large school districts in the United States and Canada, conducted to obtain information on the use of technology to serve students at risk of school failure for the participants in a conference on this topic. The first of four sections describes students at risk (i.e., who they are and the problems that they pose for society), based on the comments and observations of the 360 survey respondents. The second section provides an overview of current programs and activities using technology, particularly computers and video. A summary of procedures, data analysis, and findings of the survey form the third section, and the fourth presents a selection of survey responses. These responses include 121 program descriptions, together with the names and addresses of people to contact, in seven areas: (1) basic skills instruction, (2) programs for dropouts and potential dropouts, (3) English as a second language, (4) instruction of multiple/various targets, (5) record keeping, (6) special education, and (7) vocational education. A copy of the questionnaire and the cover letter are appended.

Annenberg/CPB Project.(1996). Learner online: Research and evaluation [Online]. Available:

The Annenberg/CPB Project presents its efforts to maximize the effectiveness of information and telecommunications technologies in teaching and learning. These resources have been selected by Annenberg/CPB for educators in general, not just those working with distance learning.

Arroyo, C. (1992). What is the effect of extensive use of computers on the reading achievement scores of seventh grade students? (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 353 544)

A study examined the effect of extended use of computers on reading achievement. The study population consisted of 75 seventh-grade students at the J. N. Thorp Elementary School, located in a predominantly low income socioeconomic neighborhood of South Chicago. Of this total, 15 students were subjected to an intensive computer-assisted instruction program, while 15 others, randomly selected from the remaining group of 60, received no computer training and served as a control group. The reading subtest of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills served as the pre- and post-test. Results indicated a statistically significant increase in reading achievement for the students who used computers. (One table of data is included; 13 references are attached.)

Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. (1995). Technology and teacher education annual [Online]. Available:

This page presents the best papers from the sixth international conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) held in San Antonio, TX, March 22-25, 1995. The papers ard divided into sections by topic such as Diversity, Social Studies, and Language Arts.

Baenen, N., et al. (1995). Improving achievement through technology: Status report on the Magnet Schools Assistance Program (MSAP) (E & R Report No. 95E.05). Raleigh, NC: Wake County Public Schools System, Department of Evaluation and Research. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 384 342)

During 1993-94 and 1994-95, eight Wake County (North Carolina) Public School System schools were funded by the federal Magnet Schools Assistance Program (MSAP) as they attempted to improve students' education and achievement through technology. This report summarizes the status of the participating schools. Results include: (1) A variety of technology components were implemented in all MSAP schools. Instructional Technology Resource Teachers (ITRTs) conducted many types of training and served as resources to help teachers use technology in their classrooms in all subjects; (2) After the first year of the grant, MSAP elementary schools and Ligon Middle School had made progress towards the two-year goal of reducing the gap between majority and minority performance on end-of-grade (EOG) tests; (3) Targeted students at Enloe High School were not more likely than a comparison group to enroll in advanced courses, but were more likely to complete these courses with a grade of C or better; and (4) Teachers believe integrating technology with their teaching is important, but many reported that before MSAP, they did not use technology because of time constraints and curriculum coverage requirements. Grant activities appeared to have a positive impact on instruction; teachers' views and use of technology improved by May 1994. Data is summarized in six figures.

Barowy, B. & Laserna, C. (1997, March). The role of the Internet in the adoption of computer modeling as legitimate high school science. Journal of Science Education and Technology 6, 3-13. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 541 785)

This article describes a project that explores the combined use of Internet client-server technology and interactive computer modeling software for improving secondary science teaching. Classroom core practices are evaluated for traceable impacts of change in student learning. Contains 59 references.

Bell, P., Davis, E. A., & Linn, M. C. (1996, November). The knowledge integration environment: Theory and design [Online]. Available:;

The abstract of the online article reads: "The Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) combines network resources and software with sound pedagogical principles to improve science learning. KIE networking tools allow students to use scientific evidence in activities that foster knowledge integration. In a pilot test in an eighth-grade physical science classroom, students worked collaboratively to answer scientific questions such as whether light travels forever or dies out. With the KIE, students use evidence from the Net and tools such as an electronic notebook and online discussion tools to make collaborative decisions. This paper describes the pedagogical framework, the components of the KIE software, and initial results from pilot research. We conclude by discussing promising next steps for networking in science education."

Bell, R., & Ramirez, R. (1997). Ensuring equitable use of education technology. Pathways to School Improvement [Online]. Available:

When a school or district decides to implement education technology into the curriculum, one of its overriding goals must be to create plans and policies for all members of the learning community to have equitable access and use. Appropriate funding and professional development represent the key means of supporting equitable access and use of technology to ensure technology literacy and to support meaningful learning for all students.

Benton Foundation. (1996). The learning connection: Schools in the information age [Online]. Available:

The Clinton administration has challenged the telecommunications industry to wire every classroom in the nation by the year 2000. Most schools still have no access to the information superhighway and would be ill-equipped to take advantage of network connections. Bringing them online--and creating the conditions in which they can use their connections in ways that enrich students--will require a substantial effort at a time of tight federal, state, and local budgets.

Bernauer, J. A. (1995). Integrating technology into the curriculum. First year evaluation. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 385 224)

A program for infusing technology into the high school curriculum was initiated with grant funds at the Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf in 1993-94. The first year of the program focused on establishing an Interactive Technology Lab, assessing teachers' readiness for the integration of technology into the curriculum and the effects of this technology on teacher and student attitudes and student achievement. Attitudinal and achievement changes were assessed in two sophomore biology classes and one senior chemistry class. Interactive video and electronic networking were the technological areas highlighted as particularly useful for deaf students, whose English language skills may be weak. Evaluation results were generally positive in terms of measured student and teacher outcomes and extremely positive in terms of the development of and capacity for delivering the technology-infused curriculum. The most important result may have been student enthusiasm for the technology. Eight tables present evaluation findings. (Contains 13 references.)

Bialo, E., & Sivin, J. (1990). Report on the effectiveness of microcomputers in schools. Washington, DC, Software Publishers Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 327 177)

The three reports in this collection are based on research reviews and original research from both published and unpublished sources, covering the years 1986 through 1990, and they reflect the broad array of factors that determine the effectiveness of technology-based instruction. The first report discusses research studying the effects of microcomputers on student achievement. Such studies compared computer-assisted instruction with more traditional instructional methods, and related student achievement to software design, learner characteristics, and implementation decisions. Research demonstrating the power of microcomputers and other educational technologies to motivate students and to improve their attitudes about learning and themselves is discussed in the second report. Finally, the effects of microcomputers on social interaction and relationships within the classroom are examined. Each study included in these reports is cited in the bibliography.

Bialo, E., & Sivin-Kachala, J. (1995). Effectiveness of technology in schools. Washington, DC: Software Publishers Association.

Using technology to support instruction improved student outcomes in language arts, math, social studies, and science, according to a 1995 review of more than 130 academic studies.

Bohren, J. L. (1993, September-October). Science learning and interactive videodisc technology. In Art, science, and visual literacy: Selected readings from the annual conference of the International Visual Literacy Association, Pittsburgh, PA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 363 286)

A pilot study with 17 middle school science teachers at 15 schools was conducted to determine how to use interactive videodisk technology to develop student ability to use visual skills in processing science information, thereby improving science achievement. The first year's progress is described in identifying how visual images seem to affect student learning. A survey of student attitudes toward the use of images to learn science was conducted with five seventh-grade classes. An analysis of 56 sets of responses identified the ways students were using the videos and what they liked. A 29-item survey was given to 395 students to learn more about their attitudes. Results support the idea that stimulating verbal achievement with visual images under the control of a teacher or students is a successful way to improve science learning. Sixty to 80 percent of students responded that the use of visual images helped them learn. Teacher reactions were also favorable. A model is presented to guide the instructional use of images in the classroom. One table and one figure supplement the discussion. (Contains 15 references.)

Bork, A. (1991, Fall). Is technology-based learning effective? Contemporary Education, 63, 6-14. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 443 831)

This article examines the quality of technology-based learning, investigating whether interactive technology can improve educational systems. It describes a program to gather evidence for definitive empirical studies and discusses possibilities for establishing the pedagogical value of technology-based learning material.

Bracewell, R., & Laferriere, T. (1996). The contribution of new technologies to learning and teaching in elementary and secondary schools (Documentary Review) [Online]. Available:

This documentary review focuses on relationships between the new technologies and student learning at the elementary levels. To be more specific, its objective is to shed light on the way in which these new technologies come into play in the learning process itself and on the immediate environment that is usually introduced in a school or a classroom to ensure this learning, as well as the impact these actions have on the students.

Bracey, G. (1993, April). New pathways: Technology's empowering influence on teaching. Electronic Learning, 8-9.

This article quotes studies that show: 1) teachers with computers expect more from their students and spend more time with individual students; 2) teachers save an average of 36 minutes a day in administrative tasks alone; 3) citations to three studies about teachers and computing.

Bransford, J. (1986, Fall). Learning with technology: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Peabody Journal of Education, 64, 5-26. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 394 471)

Three general areas in which technology (microcomputers and video technology) can facilitate learning are discussed: (1) helping students develop fluency (rapid recognition of familiar patterns); (2) providing rich problem-solving contexts that invite thinking; and (3) enabling students to create products that catch the attention of their teachers and peers.

Bransford, J., Goldman, S., & Hasselbring, T. (1996). Looking at technology in context: A framework for understanding technology and education research. In D.C.Berliner & R.C.Calfee (Eds.), The handbook of educational psychology. New York: Macmillan.

This chapter discusses technology and its role in education. Questions that are raised are: What do we know about the effects of technology on student learning and educational practice? What will future research on technology look like, and how might it different from what has been done in the past? To find the answers to these questions, three areas were simultaneously explored: (a) technology, (b) theories of human potential and human learning, and (c) issues of educational practice.

Bruce, B. C., & Rubin, A. (1993). Electronic quills: A situated evaluation of using computers for writing in classrooms (Technology in Education Series). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 363 881)

Considering questions relevant for teachers, students, researchers, and developers of educational innovations, this book centers on the words and experiences of the teachers and students who used QUILL--a system containing both computer-based tools and environments for writing. The first chapter introduces general issues on which the analysis of QUILL is based. The second chapter discusses literacy development in relation to society, culture, learning, and social contexts. The third chapter focuses on QUILL as an innovation, including the software, the activities software, and its support system. The fourth chapter describes classrooms in the Alaskan cities, towns, and villages that form the social context of the study. The fifth chapter discusses the complex and important idea of "purpose" in learning and describing alternate realizations of QUILL. The sixth chapter describes how QUILL's approach to fostering revision was realized. The seventh chapter presents the evolution of a community of teachers linked by an electronic communication network. The eighth chapter presents a theoretical framework for studying innovations and change. The ninth chapter discusses what was learned as a result of the evaluation of QUILL. (Contains 164 references.)

Butzin, S. M. (1991). Project CHILD (Computers Helping Instruction and Learning Development): Integrating computers into the elementary school. A summative evaluation. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University, Center for Instructional Development and Services. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 338 221)

Project CHILD (Computers Helping Instruction and Learning Development) is a major research project designed to develop an innovative computer-integrated instructional program for the elementary school. It has been a four-year effort funded by grants totaling $1,055,000 from the Florida Department of Education with additional support from seven Florida school districts and over 15 business partners. Project CHILD provides a unique synthesis of effective practices, curriculum realignment, and a new organizational structure for the elementary school. The program is designed for grades K-5 and covers the subject areas of reading, language arts, and mathematics. Project CHILD provides the model, supporting materials, and integrative applications of technology to enable today's elementary school teachers to take their first steps on the bridge to the future. This paper provides a description of the program and summary of the findings from the summative evaluation phase of the project, which was conducted during the 1989-90 school year. The key finding from that evaluation concluded that Project CHILD has been an effective method of teaching students. (38 references)

Butzin, S. M. (1997, March). Whatever happened to Project CHILD? Learning and Leading with Technology 24, 24-27. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 543 184)

This paper discusses Project CHILD (Computers Helping Instruction and Learning Development), a program promoting active learning and the integration of technology with learning stations. First piloted in Florida in 1991 and adopted by 57 schools, the project's success has been ensured by documentation, updates, encouragement, and support. It also describes a day in the life of a Project CHILD fourth grader.

Carroll, R., & Johnson, M. (1998-99). Embracing engaged learning: A Goals 2000 grant project

Online resources to support engaged learning workshops for teachers, media staff, and administrators in Palos Community Consolidated School District 118, in Palos Park, Illinois, during the 1998-99 school year.

Casey, J. M. (1997). Early literacy: The empowerment of technology. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

Because computers fascinate young learners, they can be powerful teaching tools. Drawing on research conducted simultaneously by researchers in France, Spain, and the United States, this book shows how to use technology--specifically a word processor with voice synthesizer--to build literacy and encourage learning in elementary school students. The chapters are: (1) "The New Literacy," on what we know about how children learn to speak, read, write, and function in their culture; (2) "Birth of the Language Machine"; (3) "The Discovery of Written Language in the Computer Age," on Dr. Rachel Cohen's innovative work with computers and young children in France; (4) "A Computer Corner for Three-Year-Old Children," on the work of Spanish Researchers Dr. Gloria Medrano and Maria Luisa Herrero Nevela; (5) "Computers and Special Needs Students"; (6) "Writing to Read," on the implementation and effects of the Writing to Read Program; (7) "Software for Early Literacy," (8) "Integration of Computers into the Classroom"; (9) "Technology Program Evaluation"; (10) "The Problem of Change in the Culture of School," on why computer technology has been accepted into the school culture only so far as it supports existing practice; and (11) "Future Directions," on technology's continued impact on learning in and out of the classroom. The book's eight appendices include criteria for scoring writing samples, a list of software programs for early literacy, a teacher's checklist for integrating technology in the classroom, and a list of review sources online. Contains references.

Center for Applied Special Technology. (1996). The role of online communications in schools: A national study [Online]. Available:

This study demonstrates that students with online access perform better. Conducted by CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology), an independent research and development organization, and sponsored by the Scholastic Network and Council of the Great City Schools, it isolates the impact of online use and measures its effect on student learning in the classroom. The study compared the work of 500 students in fourth-grade and sixth-grade classes in seven urban school districts (Chicago, Dayton, Detroit, Memphis, Miami, Oakland, and Washington D.C.)--half with online access and half without.

Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International. (1997). Research overview [Online]. Available:

Web page describes research and development projects that seek to advance theory and research on effective learning and teaching, and to apply its insights to the innovative design, use, and assessment of interactive learning environments.

CEO Forum on Education and Technology. (1997). School technology and readiness report: From pillars to progress. Washington, DC: Author. Available online:

For the next three years, the CEO Forum (a partnership of 21 business and education leaders) will issue an annual assessment of national progress toward school technology readiness using the STAR (School Technology and Readiness) chart as a backdrop and the 1997 STAR Assessment as a baseline measure. To enable more robust future assessments of the state of technology presence and integration in American schools, the CEO Forum will work with others to define and collect additional data, particularly on the integration of hardware, connectivity, content, and professional development. (The STAR chart describes technology use and integration in a typical school in four school profiles ranging from Low Technology schools to Target Technology schools that integrate technology throughout the curriculum.) Also highlights the potential educational benefits that each level of technology offers. For example, in the Target Technology school, one of the educational benefits is listed as: "Student-centered, authentic, project-based."

Ciesemier, K., Coughlin, E., & Williamson, J. (1997). Area One learning technology hub: Engaged learning with technology

Gives an exploration of a technology-supported, engaged learning unit with discussion examples.

Clark, D. (1992). Effective use of computers in the social studies: A review of the literature with implications for educators. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 370 828)

Computers offer the teacher a tool for instruction in the Social Studies that allow students to be motivated, learn social skills, attain moral ideals, develop thinking skills, and acquire knowledge easily. The findings of this review suggest that the software selected for classroom use must reflect the desired educational goals and that the teacher needs to have a clear understanding of the objectives and of the technologies' strengths and weaknesses. In order to evaluate effectively and measure the computers' contribution to education, the review indicates that the emphasis in standardized testing should focus on the knowledge that computers are able to instill in students. Time, patience, quality training, creative software, and commitment to the use of computers in the classroom are all necessary for the computer to show its true capabilities. The subject areas of language arts, mathematics, and sciences frequently use computers in the classroom. Case studies of the effectiveness of computers in the schools provide differing results and factors for consideration. Contains 23 references.

Coley, R. J., Cradler, J., & Engel, P.K. (1997). Computers and classrooms: The status of technology in U.S. schools. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, Policy Information Center.

The use of technology in classrooms shares top billing with the standards and assessment movement as ways to improve education. This report is about technology in the classroom. It provides a baseline of information from which change can be tracked. Change, of course, is the one constant in the world of technology. This report is a "snapshot" of a rapidly changing phenomenon; the picture will have to be taken regularly for such information to be useful.

Collins, A., et al. (1991). Three different views of students: The role of technology in assessing student performance (Technical Report No. 12). New York: Center for Technology in Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 337 150)

The use of paper and pencil, videotape recordings, and microcomputers in student testing provide three very different views of student achievement. Paper and pencil tests can record how students compose tests and documents, and how they critique documents or performances. Video recordings can record how students explain ideas, answer questions, listen in class, cooperate in a joint task, and perform experiments. Microcomputers can record how students learn with feedback, trace their thinking processes, and record their abilities to deal with realistic situations. The construction of tests and the format those tests take are based, in part, on the kinds of tasks that students are required to learn to perform, and a change in educational testing affects the instructional material that is taught. A key part of a current effort to develop systematically valid methods of assessing student performance in the context of high school science is the exploration of the kinds of tasks that will enable students to use and demonstrate the broader range of abilities outlined above, which will require very different kinds of tasks than those that are now the norm. Data are being collected for this project using a computer program called Physics Explorer, which provides students with a simulation environment in which they can conduct experiments to determine how different variables affect each other in a physical system. Another kind of task might be diagnosing why a system is not behaving as expected. Computers can also provide a setting where students can carry out a design task and try it out in a simulation. Research needs to be conducted to test this new approach to testing in schools, paying particular attention to its reliability, generalizability across schools, and effectiveness. (17 references)

Collis, B., Knezek, G., Kwok-Wing, L., Miyashita, K., Pelgrum, W., Plomp, T., & Sakamoto, T. (1996). Children and computers in school. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This volume integrates research findings from three multinational studies conducted to examine the impact of children's use of computers in school. Conclusions are drawn from in-depth analyses of trends in more than twenty nations. Its seven authors from four nations were key researchers on these projects.

Committee for Economic Development. (1995). Connecting students to a changing world: A technology strategy for improving mathematics and science education. Washington, DC: Committee for Economic Development.

This report from a group of business and education leaders shows how schools can bring science and math classrooms up-to-date with modern computers, CD-ROMs, modems, and online connections--for a very affordable cost.

Conway, K. (1996). Master classrooms: Classroom design with technology in mind [Online]. Available:

When you walk into a classroom with only the basic blackboard and, possibly, sound amplification, the assumption is clear: You can teach whatever concepts and provide whatever information is necessary with the lecture, chalkboard and discussion. Master classrooms take a different starting point. They begin with the assumption that different teachers may prefer different teaching styles, that different concepts may require different media and methods of communication, and that different learners have different cognitive styles.

Cornu, B., & Ralston, A. (Eds.). (1992). The influence of computers and informatics on mathematics and its teaching (Science and Technology Education Series, 44). Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Division of Science, Technical, and Environmental Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 359 073)

In 1985 the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) published the first edition of a book of studies on the topic of the influence of computers on mathematics and the teaching of mathematics. This document is an updated version of that book and includes five articles from the 1985 ICMI conference at Strasbourg, France; reports by the leaders of three workshops held at that meeting; and four new articles on topics related to mathematics instruction using technology. The articles are: (1) "Overview" (H. Burkhardt and R. Fraser); (2) "The Effect of Computers on Mathematics" (R. F. Churchhouse); (3) "The Impact of Computers and Computer Science on the Mathematics Curriculum" (A. Ralston); (4) "Computers as an Aid to Teaching and Learning Mathematics" (B. Cornu); (5) "Living with a New Mathematical Species" (L. A. Steen); (6) "What are Algorithms? What is Algorithmics?" (S. B. Mauer); (7) "On the Mathematical Basis of Computer Science" (J. Stern); (8) "The Effects of Computers on the School Mathematics Curriculum" (K.-D. Graf, R. Fraser, L. Klingen, J. Stewart, and B. Winklemann); (9) "A Fundamental Course in Higher Mathematics Incorporating Discrete and Continuous Themes" (S. B. Seidman and M. D. Rice); (10) "Teachers Education and Training" (B. Cornu); (11)"The Impact of Symbolic Mathematical Systems on Mathematics Education" (B. R. Hodgson and E. R. Muller); (12) "Calculus Teaching and the Computer: On the Interplay of Discrete Numerical Methods and Calculus in the Education of Users of Mathematics" (M. Mascarello and B. Winkelmann); and (13) "Graphic Insight into Mathematical Concepts" (D. Tall and B. West). A list of 62 annotated references and and index are included.

Council for Exceptional Children. (1990). Computers and cooperative learning. Tech use guide: Using computer technology. Reston, VA: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 339 153)

This guide focuses on the use of computers and cooperative learning techniques in classrooms that include students with disabilities. The guide outlines the characteristics of cooperative learning such as goal interdependence, individual accountability, and heterogeneous groups, emphasizing the value of each group member. Several cooperative learning models are also described, ranging from simple structures such as "think, pair, share" to more complex structures called "learning together," "jigsaw," or "student team learning." The benefits of incorporating computer usage into cooperative learning activities are explored, and four classroom scenarios that illustrate these benefits are described. A list of sixreferences, three readings, four organizations, and 16 software programs concludes the guide.

Cradler, J. (1996). Implementing technology in education: Recent findings from research and evaluation studies [Online]. Available:

This article suggests an approach to implement technology based on the author's 25 years of experience in this area, plus the findings of studies related to technology implementation. The suggested approach emphasizes instructional and student needs first and then thorough planning to integrate technology in ways that enhance and extend instructional and learning opportunities.

Cradler, J. (1996). Summary of current research and evaluation findings on technology in education [Online]. Available:

The areas outlined in this document are: A) the major outcomes consistently shown for students and teachers determined to result from technology; B) technology development and applications to support teaching learning; C) local, state, and national factors to support effective technology applications; and D) considerations for an expanded research and development agenda for educational technology.

Cradler, J., & Bridgforth, E. (1996). Recent research on the effects of technology on teaching and learning [Online]. Available:

Explains what research and experience say about the benefits and the most appropriate uses of technology and telecommunications to support and expand teaching and learning.

Curry, J., & Sabatino, M. (1994). Instructional technology in Austin Independent School District, 1993-94 (Publication No. 93.06). Austin, TX: Austin Independent School District, Office of Research and Evaluation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 379 305)

During the 1993-94 school year, the Office of Research and Evaluation of the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas) conducted a districtwide evaluation of instructional technology. The evaluation consisted first of an accurate count of all computers in AISD schools, and then of an in-depth evaluation of the integrated learning systems of the Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC) and Jostens Learning. The over 11,000 computers in the Austin schools are more than twice the amount present 3 years ago. Of these, 39 percent are considered old. This amounts to six students for every one computer in the district. Gains in student achievement have not been significant enough to declare either of the integrated learning systems effective, but the gains made at some schools warrant their continued use. Better communication and training are needed to encourage use of laser disc technology and to ensure the effectiveness of the integrated learning systems. The district should add computers and plan to replace outdated models. Eighteen figures and two tables present evaluation findings. Four attachments provide supplemental information, including the principal questionnaire. (Contains 7 references.)

Davidson, G. V., & Ritchie, S. D. (1994, February). How do attitudes of parents, teachers, and students affect the integration of technology into schools? A case study. Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the 1994 National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Sponsored by the Research and Theory Division 16th, Nashville, TN. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 373 710)

How attitudes of parents, teachers, and students toward computers affect the integration and use of computer technology in schools was studied at an elementary school in Texas. Whether these attitudes changed with the introduction of computer technology and the implications of involving parents in the planning of curriculum and activities was also examined. The school purchased Macintosh computers and implemented computer training and laboratory access for teachers, parents, and students. The study involved 475 students, 34 teachers, and 230 parents in two school years. Each group reported successful experiences and positive attitudes toward computers. Measurement indicated that attitudes improved or increased in the second year. High initial enthusiasm makes the impact of the technology less apparent, but results tend to confirm the belief that successful implementation of technology requires a supportive environment from administrators and the community. Three tables present survey findings. (Contains 19 references.)

Davis, E., III. (1996). The future of education [Online]. Available:

The education reform movement, gaining and sometimes losing momentum since the '60s, is now coming to a boil. The head of the boil is economic insurgency. Although the cure is subject to much debate, the cry for technology based re-engineering has become the point of the surgical lance. As the workplace has been made over by re-engineering, so will go the "learnplace".

Decker, B. C. (1991, May). Early literacy instruction with computers and whole language: An evaluation of the writing-to-read computer program with disadvantaged minority children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Reading Association, Las Vegas, NV.

A study examined the effectiveness of the Writing-to-Read Computer Program in elementary school language arts education. The program is designed to teach children to read through interacting with a computer by learning sound/symbol relationships and by composing stories. First through fourth graders from predominantly black, urban schools and from a rural, racially integrated school were tested in vocabulary, reading recognition, reading comprehension, and language subtests of the Metropolitan Achievement Test, and in the reading, language, and spelling subtests of the California Achievement Test. Results indicated that the Writing-to-Read Program produced significant gains in language and spelling that hold up over time. However, it did not seem to influence reading ability. Traditionally, poor language skills have been seen as a detriment to normal development in reading, yet the children in this study had strong language scores. Results also suggest that if these children had a whole language start in reading instruction beginning in kindergarten, the children's scores in reading would improve dramatically. (Three tables of data are included.)

Dede, C. (Ed.). (1998). Learning with technology (1998 ASCD Yearbook). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

This Yearbook was created to share visions, successes, and well-learned lessons to stimulate an extended dialogue among ASCD members. Its chapters include discussions on technology in support of educational reform, technology tools for teaching and learning science, support for project-based learning, assistive technology for young children in special education, integrating Internet services into school communities, and implementing educational technology "tomorrow morning."

Dwyer, D. C., et al. (1990, April). The evolution of teachers' instructional beliefs and practices in high-access-to-technology classrooms. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, Boston, MA.

This paper describes the program Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) and reports on the instructional evolution that occurred in those classrooms.

Education Development Center. (1999). Model professional development programs [Online]. Available:

This Web site, from the Education Development Center (EDC) program "leadership and the New Technologies," lists seven model professional development in technology programs. Each description includes a full discussion of the program, references and author contact information.

Education Development Center. (2000). Leadership and the new technologies [Online]. Available:

The Leadership and the New Technologies (LNT) project supports school and district leaders responsible for planning and implementing the use of technology to enhance teaching and learning in their schools. Of particular interest is the LNT Library, which offers free access to a variety of documents on educational technology.

Ely, D. P., et al. (1995). Trends in educational technology: 1995. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology.

Identifies and discusses eight current trends in this growing field: computers in schools, networking, television in the school, advocacy for educational technology, educational technology in the community, new delivery systems for educational technology, technological literacy for teachers, and educational technology and educational reform. A comparison of the findings from 1995 to other trend studies by the author conducted in 1988, 1989, and 1991 provide readers a longitudinal perspective on trends. Each trend is listed separately with supporting data, subjective commentaries, and references.

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. (1999). K-12 classroom projects [Online]. Available:

Designed to demonstrate principles of engaged learning and effective use of technology by K-12 teachers who participated in staff development programs at Fermi Lab.

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Education Office. (1997). Handbook of engaged learning projects [Online]. Available:

This online handbook describes projects designed by K-12 teachers that demonstrate engaged learning and effective use of technology while reflecting national standards or goals. Each project has an assessment component but results of evaluation are not included.

Fisher, C., Dwyer, D. C., & Yocam, K. (Eds.). (1996). Education and technology: Reflections on computing in classrooms. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Commemorates the tenth anniversary of the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) Project. The contributors to this volume, most of whom have had an association with ACOT, are veterans in studying and using technology in schools. While recognizing that technology is not a panacea for education's problems, they shed light on ways in which it can serve as a powerful catalyst for student learning.

Follansbee, S., et al. (1997, Winter). Can online communications improve student performance? Results of a controlled study. ERS-Spectrum, 15, 15-26. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 542 606).

Describes a 1995-96 CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology) controlled study conducted in seven major U.S. cities that measured the effects of online usage (via Internet and Scholastic Network) on student learning. Results show that online use can increase student performance. Students in experimental classes produced better results on a civil rights unit than those in control classes.

Frose-Germain, B., & Moll, M. (1998). The impact of technology on teaching and learning: Social, cultural, and political perspectives (Critical Issues in Education and Technology Series No. 1) [Online]. Available:

This document review presents the work of educators and researchers exploring the social, cultural and political impacts of technology on education from a critical perspective. The books, papers and articles listed have been selected because they challenge readers to go beyond the "how" to ask critical questions such as "why" and "at what cost" when evaluating the role of technology in education. (authors).

Fulton, K., Wasser, J. D., Rubin, A., Grant, C. M., McConachie, M., Feldman, A., Spitzer, W., McNamara, E., & Porter, E. (1996). Technology infusion and school change: Perspectives and practices [Online]. Available:

Model Schools Partnership research monograph features: Reform, Restructuring, and Technology (by Judith Davidson Wasser), Educational Technology: Support for Inquiry-Based Learning (by Andee Rubin), Professional Development in a Technological ge: New Definitions, Old Challenges, New Resources (by Cathy Miles Grant), and Community Support: A Key to Realizing Technology Visions (by Alan Feldman).

Gearhart, M., Herman, J., Baker, E. L., Novak, J. R., & Whittaker, A. K. (n.d.). A new mirror for the classroom: A technology-based tool for documenting the impact of technology on instruction (CSE Technical Report 336). Los Angeles: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.

Using a new empirical method to evaluate teachers' use of technology in the classroom, researchers found that elementary teachers tend to use technology for low-to-medium-level activities such as basic skills instruction, and that even though secondary-level teachers were more likely to use technology for classroom innovation, room for improvement was found for both groups.

Grassl, R., & Mingus, T. (1997, Fall). Using technology to enhance problem solving and critical thinking skills. Mathematics and Computer Education, 31, 293-300.

During the summer of 1996, at the University of Northern Colorado, we taught a problem solving course to twenty secondary mathematics teachers. Our goals in the course included promoting the NCTM Standards regarding problem solving, discussing alternative assessment, implementing appropriate use of technology, and learning content while engaged in a cooperative learning mode. In allowing them to probe on their own, technology became a means for them to develop as teachers and as problem solvers.

Griffin, J. C. (1991). The effect of computers on secondary remedial writing. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Nova University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 340 018)

A practicum implemented a program of writing instruction using computers and measured its effectiveness in helping eleventh-grade remedial students meet the district's ninth-grade writing proficiency requirements, and in improving students' attitudes toward writing. Subjects were 13 eleventh-grade students in a C-track (remedial) English class. A pre-implementation survey determined experience and attitudes toward writing and computers. Writing assignments from the ninth grade writing proficiency exam were used as a pretest (handwritten) and posttest (handwritten and computer written). In 34 sessions over a 12-week period, students were instructed (using computers with word processing and software) on sentence structure and paragraphing. A posttest questionnaire elicited students' attitudes about writing and the use of computers. Results indicated that students improved in writing in both style and mechanics, with all students passing the proficiency paragraph exam. Improvements were noted both in the computer-generated and the handwritten assignment. Results also indicated that students' attitudes toward writing and homework improved as a result of the computer writing experience. (Twenty-three references are included; two appendixes contain the student questionnaire and the student computer ability survey.)

Grimaldi, C., Light, D., & Hawkins, J. (1996). SuperQuest 1989-1995: Research and evaluation [Online]. Available:

This report presents the findings of an external research project that evaluated the program SuperQuest. Participating schools, teachers, and students from each of the six years of the program (1989-95) were included in the study. The report dicusses qualities of the program as it was experienced by various stakeholders and school sites, its degree of success, and factors that may have mediated impacts.

Hamilton, V. (1995). Computers and reading achievement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 382 923)

A study examined the effect of computer assisted instruction on the reading achievement of third- through sixth-grade students in a low socio-economic status community. Subjects were 23 students randomly selected from 41 students who received computer-assisted instruction and 23 students randomly selected from 28 students who did not receive computer assisted instruction. Subjects attended a Chicago, Illinois, public school located in the Lawndale community of the city's West side. Students who scored at or below stanine three on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills were randomly assigned to traditional basal reading instruction, or to reading instruction using the computer. Results indicated that reading scores were not affected by computer usage. Results also indicated no significant differences between boys' reading achievement based on method of reading instruction, or between girls' achievement based on method of instruction. (Contains 1 table of data and 23 references.)

Hardin, J., & Ziebarth, J. (1996). Digital technology and its impact on education [Online]. Available:

A number of the emerging technologies are about to appear on the Web, including mobile code, integrated, full-media, interactive bulletin boards and e-mail, and virtual environment-based discussion tools; these new tools will provide teachers and students with a rich and customizable set of capabilities based on increasingly common standards and widely available software. Students and teachers will be able to establish, discover, join, monitor, and contribute to specific "neighborhoods" of interest, or "classrooms." Such Web-based collaborations will become a common occurrence and a base for students and teachers to obtain assistance with local projects and reach beyond their local resources.

Haughney, P. (1997). The use of technology in an engaged learning project: Primary level. Chicago, IL: DePaul University, Department of Teaching and Learning.

Subjects: computer-assisted instruction, computers and children, and educational technology.

Haugland, S. (1995, Summer). Computers and young children. Will technology change early childhood education? Day Care & Early Education, 22, 45-46. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 507 180)

Examines the factors contributing to the progression of microcomputers into the early childhood classroom. Suggests that inevitable changes in the character of early childhood education caused by technology will, in fact, be positive changes.

Heaviside, S., Farris, E., Malitz, G., & Carpenter, J. (1995). Advanced telecommunications in U. S. public schools, K-12. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

This report presents the results of a survey requesting information on the availability and use of telecommunications, plans to implement or upgrade wide area connections, access to the Internet and selected Internet capabilities, and barriers schools face to the acquisition or use of advanced telecommunications. Data were gathered from a national sample of 1,380 public elementary and secondary schools in Fall 1994.

Honey, M., Culp, K. M., & Spielvogel, R. (1999). Using technology to improve student achievement. Pathways to School Improvement [Online]. Available:

Evidence indicates that when used effectively, "technology applications can support higher-order thinking by engaging students in authentic, complex tasks within collaborative learning contexts" (Means, et al, 1993). When educators use the accumulating knowledge regarding the circumstances under which technology supports the broad definition of student achievement, they will be able to make informed choices about what technologies will best meet the particular needs of specific schools or districts. This critical issue offers an informative look at this subject.

Honey, M., & Henriquez, A. (1993). Telecommunications and K-12 educators: Findings from a national survey. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 359 923)

In March 1990, the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) carried out a study of the potential that technology offers to education at all levels. This project was known as the Vision: TEST (Technologically Enriched Schools of Tomorrow). Data for the study were collected via a review of the applicable literature, visits to schools throughout the United States to videotape and observe the ways in which technology is playing a role in creating exciting learning environments, discussions with many people with expertise over the spectrum of relevant experience, and substantial dialogue with approximately 150 experts. The purpose of the project was to: (1) describe some of the ways in which technology can help improve education, (2) help educational decision makers and administrators identify steps they must take to change education, and (3) look at the economic impact of technology in education. Evidence of the instructional effectiveness of educational technology was examined, particularly in the case of high-risk students, and five recommendations were made for educational decision makers. These recommendations include recognizing the need for improvement, making use of educational technologies, providing classroom environments conducive to learning, empowering teachers, and redesigning school systems so they can be managed more effectively. A list of the 150 experts who participated in the Vision: TEST is included.

Honey, M., & Henriquez, A. (1996). Union City interactive multimedia education trial: 1993-95 summary report [Online]. Available (requires Adobe Acrobat software):

In February of 1996, Union City--a predominantly Latino, inner city community--received national recognition when the President and Vice President of the United States came to acknowledge the extraordinary accomplishments of this urban school district. This unique blending of comprehensive school reform, technological innovation, and corporate sponsorship was cited as a model for educational excellence and national inspiration.

Hunter, B., & Richards, J. (1996). Learner contributions to knowledge, community, and learning [Online]. Available:

The nature of work and learning in our knowledge-based society and economy requires active participation by individuals and groups in the construction of knowledge. In this paper, we will provide examples of student work that not only demonstrates their own learning as young "knowledge" workers, but also makes a contribution to their community, to the learning of others, and to the base of knowledge available on the Internet. We will construct a brief vision of learning, teaching, and knowledge building in the future that assumes broad participation in these activities.

Interactive Educational Systems Design. (1995). Report on the effectiveness of technology in schools, '96-96. Washington, DC: Software Publishers Association.

This report provides software developers and publishers with research that will enable them to improve educational technology so that it continues to have a significant positive impact on student achievement, self-concept and attitudes, and on the interactions in the learning environment for students of all ages, capabilities, socio-economic backgrounds, and areas of interest.

International Technology Education Association. (1989). Technology education in action: Outstanding programs. Reston, VA: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 336 636)

This volume contains 10 articles describing middle school and high school technology education programs conducted in schools throughout the United States.

Jackson, D., et al. (1997, March). Internet resources for middle school science: Golden opportunity or "Silicon snake oil"? Journal of Science Education and Technology, 6, 49-57. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 541 789)

Reports on a study that examines the experiences of six teachers at three schools in learning about and beginning to implement or enhance project-based learning in their middle school science classrooms using a variety of resources available on the Internet. Contains 25 references.

Jacobson, M. J., & Levin, J. A. (1993). Network learning environments and hypertext: Constructing personal and shared knowledge spaces. In D. Foster & D. V. Jolly (Eds.), Proceedings of Tel-Ed '93 (pp. 190-197). Dallas, TX: International Society for Technology in Education. Available online:;

Education uses of networks are rapidly expanding as the problems of "ease-or-use" and "access" are gradually being solved. However, even as these problems are being solved, the solutions create second-order problems, such as students and teachers becoming overwhelmed with too much network-generated information. This paper presents conceptual frameworks that capture some of the unique properties of network learning environments, and which can be used to provide systematic guidance to the design of network learning activities and software tools to enable these activities. The authors illustrate these frameworks by showing how they have helped design two different tools for educational uses of networks, a Message Assistant and a Project-Based Learning Server.

Jegede, O. J. (1991, November). Computers and the learning of biological concepts: Attitudes and achievement of Nigerian students. Science Education, 75, 701-706. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 466 093)

This study compared attitudes toward computer use and achievement in biology for three groups of Nigerian students (n=64): (1) working alone with computer; (2) working in groups of three on the computer; (3) and a control group that received normal instruction (lecture). Students in the second group had the highest scores on attitude. No significant differences were found in achievement.

Johnson, M. (1998). Article for School Times, October 1998

Written for: Palos Community Consolidated School District 118. One hundred and nineteen District 118 teachers and administrators became published instructional designers, authoring over sixty web-based curriculum units funded through a competitive grant awarded to District 118 by the Illinois State Board of Education.

Johnson, M. (1998). Engaged learning with technology: Online resources

Written for: Palos Community Consolidated School District 118. Gives answers to these questions: Why Engaged Learning, Why now? What is Engaged Learning? Where are models? What other resources are available? Where can I find ongoing help?

TechTalk is a periodic newsletter with technology tidbits, news, and resources written specifically for the Palos Community Consolidated School District 118 teachers and support staff. It will contain announcements about upcoming events, calls for participation, links to web resources, and information that will help keep up with what's going on tech-wise in District 118.

Jonassen, D. H. (1995, Spring). Computers as cognitive tools: Learning with technology, not from technology. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 6, 40-73. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 506 904)

Cognitive tools, computer-based applications normally used as productivity software, can also function as knowledge representation formalisms that require learners to think critically. Databases, spreadsheets, semantic networks, expert systems, and multimedia/hypermedia construction can function as computer-based cognitive tools to expand student thinking, changing the college student's role to that of knowledge constructor rather than information reproducer.

Jones, B. F., Valdez, G., Nowakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educational reform. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.

Builds on an earlier study that reviewed five technologies: computer, traditional distance education, two-way interactive telecommunications, multimedia, and the Internet. A major outcome of the earlier research was a framework to assist schools and policymakers in evaluating specific technologies and technology-enhanced curricula. This paper both summarizes and extends the earlier study and adds tools for technology evaluation as well as a rationale for using regions to distribute information resources and services electronically.

Jones, B. F., Valdez, G., Nowakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1995). Plugging in: Choosing and using educational technology. Washington, DC: Council for Educational Research and Development, and North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Available online:

Offers a way to evaluate the effectiveness of various technologies and technology programs against the backdrop of new research on learning. It presents an analytic framework to help educators ensure that their use of technology compliments their goals for student learning. Explains: indicators of effective learning and high technology performance, the framework and its use, policy issues in the use of technology in learning, and key implementation issues in the use of technology for learning. Concludes with a list of recommendations about effectively using technology for learning.

Jones, B. F., Valdez, G., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Toward redefining technology effectiveness in education. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.

This paper found that technologies used to deliver traditional models of curriculum, instruction, and assessment had very different effects and cost criteria compared to those used to deliver models based on recent research on learning and educational reform. (Includes a literature review and has an extensive reference list.)

Jordan, W. R., & Follman, J. M. (Eds.). (1993). Using technology to improve teaching and learning. Hot Topics: Usable Research. Palatka, FL: NEFEC/SERVE, Regional Vision for Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 355 930)

Computers have become one of the expected trappings of today's classroom, but systemic curricular integration of computers is still more of a promise than a reality. This report discusses the need to restructure learning environments to support the active use of technology by teachers. It examines attitudes and roles that evolve among successful technology-users and gives examples of specific student activities. Throughout the document, sidebars entitled "Dynamite Ideas" offer examples of teachers, schools, and districts in the Southeast that have used technological ideas successfully. (Contains 71 references.)

Kerr, S. T. (1991, Fall). Lever and fulcrum: Educational technology in teachers' thought and practice. Teachers College Record, 93, 114-136. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 438 557)

Describes educational technology's place in classroom teachers' thoughts and practices, examining three assumptions (teaching and teachers, what technology contributes to instruction, and how technology is used). Information is presented from two studies of teachers' classroom practice and technology's place. Implications of changes in practice to improve teacher education are noted.

Koschmann, T. D., et al. (1994 ). Using technology to assist in realizing effective learning and instruction: A principled approach to the use of computers in collaborative learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3, 227-264. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 513 823)

In response to existing educational systems producing individuals who fail to have sound working knowledge bases, this article examines uses of technology to improve instructional methods. Reviews results of a case study that uses problem-based learning as a collaborative learning method for medical undergraduates, and presents six principles of effective learning and instruction. (Contains 104 references.)

Kozma, R., & Quellmalz, E. (1996). Issues and needs in evaluating the educational impact of the National Information Infrastructure [Online]. Available:

Over the next 10 years, there will be dramatic changes in the use of networked technology for work, play, and learning. New technologies will be developed, test beds will be installed, software will be designed, and new technology-based curricula will be developed along with the teacher training programs needed to implement them. This paper discusses possible ways to tailor evaluation designs to fit the structure of the innovation and its causal proximity to student learning, ways to assess the impact of the innovation on the structure of the education system, and ways to assess the impact of the innovation on educational processes and what potential technology has to capture and analyze these processes.

Kromhout, O., & Butzin, S. (1993, Fall). Integrating computers into the elementary school curriculum: An evaluation of nine Project CHILD model schools. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 26, 55.

Project CHILD (Computers Helping Instruction and Learning Development) is a computer-integrated instructional program for the elementary school. It provides for curriculum realignment and a restructured organization for the elementary school to facilitate the integration of technology into the classroom. This paper reports on a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of the program on student achievement. The effect was positive and statistically significant, across grades and schools, for the three areas measured: reading, mathematics, and total battery scores on standardized tests.

Kulik, J., et al. (1985). Effectiveness of computer-based education in elementary schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 7, 59-74. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 327 015)

This meta analysis of 32 comparative studies shows that computer-based education has generally had positive effects on the achievement of elementary school pupils. However, these effects are different for off-line computer managed instruction and interactive computer assisted instruction (CAI); interactive CAI produces greater increases in student achievement scores.

Kulik, C., & Kulik, J. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based instruction: An updated analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 7, 75-94. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 424 824)

Presents a meta analysis that examines results of 254 controlled evaluation studies that compared student learning in classes taught with and without computer-based instruction (CBI). Outcome measures are described, statistical analysis and effect size are discussed, and results are reported that show that CBI usually produces positive effects on students.

Losak, J., & MacFarland, T. (1994). An evaluation of Florida's model technology schools program 1988 to 1993: You can't go home again (Report 94-02) Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 381 129)

The broad objectives of the Model Technology Schools project were to study the impact of technology on schools and student learning, to develop models for using educational technology as a tool for school management and classroom teaching, and to disseminate these models for use in public schools throughout the state. Research involved site visits and two surveys to participating schools. Project procedures, a review of previous evaluations, and observations from site visits and survey results are reported. Findings highlights include: (1) technology serves as a student motivation; (2) technology improves access to information; (3) knowledge of technology is viewed as critical to career and preparation for high school graduates; (4) adaptive devices for students with special needs are insufficient though, where available, provide excellent tools for individualized instruction; (5) 91% of students spend between 1-10 hours per week on microcomputer usage; (6) teachers report availability and student usage of computers at a much higher level than overall usage in the United States; (7) generally, conditions known to support learning (enthusiasm, improved time on task, and collaborative behavior) were reported by teachers to be much more in evidence with computer usage; (8) classroom management improved and teacher involvement in the communication network has improved thanks to electronic mail; and (9) careful use of limited, and sometimes older, computers demonstrates that state-of-the-art, expensive computers are not essential. Based on research findings, eight project recommendations are made. Twenty tables illustrate findings. (Contains 20 references.)

Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). A model for inservice teacher training in technology integration

Los Alamos National Laboratory model for effective teacher development is the Teacher Opportunities to Promote Science (TOPS) program. This is a three-year program involving cross-level teams of teachers from various districts in a rigorous combination of academic year workshops and summer institutes. Based on a combination of research and empirical data, the teacher development model has been recognized by the Secretary of Energy as a model program.

Mann, D., & Shakeshaft, C. (1997). The impact of technology in the schools of the Mohawk regional information center area (Technical Report). Verona, NY: Mohawk Regional Information Center.

This study was commissioned by participating school districts served by the Mohawk Regional Information Center (New York) to document the differences that computer-related technology has made for the region's students, teachers, and schools. Elementary and secondary school teachers (n=4,041), students (n=1,722), and administrators (n=225) in 159 schools and 52 districts were surveyed. Follow-up case studies were conducted at every level of school organization in both high and low technology schools. Results show: (1) 71% of teachers use computer-related techniques for instruction; (2) schools in the region have a student to computer ratio of 7:1, compared with a state ratio of 10:1 and a national ratio of 9:1; (3) virtually every teacher has access to a computer; (4) student achievement is higher in schools where teachers believe that technology can have a positive impact on learning; (5) teachers and other faculty all credit computer-related technology with improving teaching, empowering teachers, and helping with the New York State Learning Standards; and (6) the overall gains from increased use of computer-related technology for students and teachers are statistically significant. The study consists of five sections: Introduction, Installed Base, Equipment and Training, The Process of Implementing and Integrating Technology, The Impact of Technology, and Recommendations. Appendices include the case studies, study methodology, data collection instruments, and bibliography. (Contains 47 references.)

Marx, R. W., et al. (1997, March). Enacting project-based science. Elementary School Journal 97, 341-58. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 541 662)

Discusses changes in ideas about learning underlying reforms in science education. Highlights experiences with project-based science, which focuses on student-designed inquiry organized by investigations to answer driving questions, including collaboration among learners, new technology, and the creation of authentic artifacts that represent student understanding. Illustrates challenges of project-based science for classroom practice, professional development, and policy.

Mayer, M., & Scorborough, D. (Eds.). (1997). The state networking report: Progress, policies, and partnerships bring Internet connectivity to K-12 schools. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

Report on an investigation of the status of networking efforts in K-12 schools nationwide. Confirms the positive role that technology, particularly Internet access, can have in better educating children. Education policymakers and school administrators recognize this and are "wiring" schools at varying rates. One section focuses on funding issues, and another examines issues of equity.

McBee, D. (1994). The effect of technology on emergent writing. Juneau, AK: University of Alaska Southeast. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 372 390)

Noting that emergent literacy and technology are new educational fields that are just beginning to develop, a study explored the connection between emergent writing and technology by examining the effects on kindergarten children learning to write using a microcomputer. A group of kindergarten students attending North Star Elementary in Nikiski, Alaska, was divided into two groups. One group (15 students) acted as a control and wrote only in their journals. The other group (14 students) wrote only on computers. Both groups were compared for the rate of developmental growth in emergent literacy. Pre- and post-tests were administered to obtain baseline data. Students were also surveyed to determine their attitudes about computer-based writing. Findings suggest that the experience of writing is more important than the writing tool that students choose to use. (Contains 8 references. Elizabeth Sulzby's classification scheme for forms of writing, a student survey, and two tables of data are attached.)

McClintock, R. (1996). Renewing the progressive contract with posterity: On the social construction of digital learning communities [Online]. Available:

In place of the image of the ladder of grades with students climbing upward, this article imagines instead a learning community with its youngest children entering at its very center, then moving outward as they grow through a series of concentric circles, with parents, teachers, and other adults ringed around them, and with lines of interactive electronic communication linking all from the center of these circles out to the full range of cultural institutions and specialized resources of the society.

McKenzie, J. (1998, March). The wired classroom: Creating technology enhanced student-centered learning environments. From Now On, The Educational Technology Journal, 7 [Online]. Available:

Networking only pays off if?e provide enough computers, enough staff development and a combination of powerful tools with rich information. This article defines the kinds of wired classrooms, which would make a huge capital investment in networks worthwhile.

McMahon, T., & Knuth, R. (1995). Literature review: Administrative issues related to technology integration. Belleville, MI: Great Lakes Collaborative.

The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of the administrative issues involved in conducting professional development via electronic networks. This review provides information relevant to the immediate implementation of the Teacher Telementoring Project, as well as a starting point for future online discussions among the school administrators and teachers involved in the project.

Means, B. (Ed.) (1994). Technology and education reform: The reality behind the promise. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Articles discuss the relationship between reform and technology. Articles include: Using Technology to Advance Educational Goals; Multimedia Environments for Developing Literacy in At-Risk Students (Vanderbilt Univ.); Computer Networks: Opportunities or Obstacles? (Newman); Integrating Technology with Teacher Preparation (Barron); Using Technology to Support Innovative Assessment (Sheingold); Evaluating the Effects of Technology in School Reform (Herman); Realizing the Promise of Technology: A Policy Perspective (David); Tomorrow's Schools: Technology and Reform in Partnership (Means).

Means, B. (1997). Using technology to enhance engaged learning for at-risk students. Pathways to School Improvement [Online]. Available:

This critical issue demonstrates how new technologies can provide meaningful learning experiences for all children, especially those at risk of educational failure. Schools that capitalize on the relationship between technology and education reform will help students to develop higher order skills and to function effectively in the world beyond the classroom.

Means, B., Blando, J., Olson, K., & Middleton, T. (1993). Using technology to support education reform. Washington DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available online:

Support for the use of technology to promote fundamental school reform appears to be reaching a new high. At the same time, schools have the opportunity to profit from the experiences of those educational institutions that already have implemented various technological innovations within the context of serious reform efforts, Technology is viewed as a means of supporting goals related to increased student involvement with complex, authentic tasks and new organizational structures within classrooms and schools.

Means, B., & Olson, K. (1997). Studies of education reform: Technology and education reform. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Case studies of nine sites that have been using technology in ways that enhance a restructuring of the classroom around students' needs and project-based activities form the centerpiece of this project. In selecting schools for study, priority was given to sites that have emphasized education reform (rather than technology for its own sake) and that provide challenging, authentic activities for students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Eight individual schools and one network of 462 schools constituted the case study sample.

Mergendoller, J. R. (1997, January). Sifting the hype: What research says about technology and learning. Principal, 76, 12-14. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 537 531)

Research suggests that technology is an equivocal blessing. Although it expedites our ability to access, share, manipulate, and display information, it provides little or no guidance regarding the quality, relevance, or timeliness of the information it processes. Teachers must take this responsibility and help students develop their own information discrimination skills. (12 references)

Mergendoller, J. R., et al. (1992). A portfolio-based evaluation of Utah's education technology initiative: 1990-1991 school year. Novato, CA: Beryl Buck Institute for Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 370 527)

This report examines the impact of the Utah Educational Technology Initiative (ETI) on student performance and student access to computers during the initial year of implementation in the 1990-91 school year. Chapter 1 describes ETI goals, the goals of the evaluation report, the concept of portfolio analysis, and organization of the report. An overview of school district ETI proposals is provided in Chapter 2, including details on goals, dates of operation, and funding levels. Chapter 3 discusses the impact of the ETI on student performance, including statewide testing results, ETI coordinators' reports, principals' reports, results of a Salt Lake City evaluation of district ETI projects, and school administrator and teacher perceptions. The impact of the ETI on student computer use is discussed in Chapter 4, including changes between 1990 and 1991 in the number of computers available to students, the computer/student ratio, the amount of time students use computers, and the number of schools using computers in instruction. Chapter 5 presents a case study of the Salt Lake City School District that addresses ETI planning, project descriptions, constraints, and evaluation. Recommendations related to teacher training/support and computer use policies are offered. The appendixes include student performance goals for reading, writing, language arts, mathematics, and science; examples of students writing; and examples of writing assignments.

Mergendoller, J. R., et al. (1993). The Utah educational technology initiative year two evaluation: Program implementation, computer acquisition and placement, and computer use . Salt Lake City, UT: Utah State Office of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 370 532)

This evaluation report describes program implementation, computer acquisition and placement, and computer use during the second year (1991-92) of the Utah Educational Technology Initiative (ETI). In addition, it discusses the various ways computers are used in Utah schools and reports the opinions and experiences of ETI coordinators in the 12 school districts closest to Salt Lake City. The five chapters are as follows: (1) "An Overview of the Utah Educational Technology Initiative and this Evaluation" addresses Utah's financial commitments to educational improvement through educational technology, previous evaluation reports, and data sources for this report; (2) "ETI Implementation during the 1991-1992 School Year" discusses comments of ETI coordinators, influences on ETI development and implementation, teachers' use of technology for instruction, and inservice training; (3) "Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Continuum of Instructional Use" considers school reform and educational technology, the continuum of computer use, and software tools; (4) "The Impact of ETI Funding on Computer Access during the 1991-1992 School Year" describes computer access and location, student/computer ratios 1989-92, and computer type and location; and (5) "Feedback and Networking Meetings" presents a summary of participants' concerns regarding inservice, software, hardware, technical support, the ETI project office, colleges of education, legislative funding, and vendors. The appendix contains the school questionnaire and evaluation feedback data from the Alpine School District.

Mergendoller, J. R., et al. (1994). The Utah educational technology initiative: Evaluation update. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah State Office of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 370 534)

This report begins with an overview of the Utah Educational Technology Initiative (ETI) that describes the state's financial commitment to educational improvement through educational technology, the ETI allocation process, the requirement that school districts and colleges of education match ETI funds with locally-generated funds or in-kind services, and ETI funding by district. Previous evaluation reports are described, and findings from the 3-year course of this evaluation are reported in the following areas: ETI impact on student achievement and motivation, ETI impact on student access to technology, the nature of student computer use, teacher computer utilization, efforts to support technology use, program implementation and outreach, teacher competence with educational technology, and ETI at colleges of education. Three remaining challenges are presented in conclusion: (1) to continue to support teachers through inservice training and other means so they can take advantage of the instructional opportunities offered by computers, (2) to provide funds necessary for hardware maintenance and upgrading, and (3) to continue to communicate the vision of a technology-enhanced education and to invite the participation of teachers and students at all levels.

Microsoft in Education. (1999). Engaged learning. The connected learning community: Technology roadmap [Online]. Available:

This model, engaged learning, represents a fundamental change in the way learning takes place in the classroom. This chapter looks at the components of the engaged learning model and at ways in which the integration of technology into curricula supports engaged learning.

Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory. (1996). The impact of technology [Online]. Available:

One of the questions regarding the use of technology in education is "Does technology (computers, multimedia, the Interment, etc.) improve the education of K-12 students?" This page pulls together resources that will help educators answer this question. Includes surveys, bibliographies, literature reviews, articles, reports, case studies, and additional resources.

Milken Exchange on Educational Technology. (1998). Seven dimensions for gauging progress of technology in the schools [Online]. Available:;_uid1=152

This site discusses how schools can begin to measure their own progress in using technology to transform classrooms into active, stimulating and academically sound learning environments.

Moersch, C. (1996-97, December-January). Computer efficiency: Measuring the instructional use of technology. Learning and Leading with Technology, 24, 52-56. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 539 7080)

If technology is to have more than a modest impact on curriculum design, educators must embrace a new paradigm integrating technology in the classroom. Describes LoTi (levels of technology implementation), an instrument to measure the degree to which computers are used to support concept-based or process-based instruction, consequential learning, and higher order thinking skills.

Mowe, R. (1995). Evaluating technology integration in the elementary school: A step by step guide. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

This book is divided into five chapters. The first provides an overview of technology and program evaluation. The second suggests a way to plan for the evaluation. The third explains how to collect the data to describe the existing technology program. The fourth explains how to interpret the data. The final chapter assists in the presentation of the evaluation report. The appendix contains the evaluation questionnaires.

Muffoletto, R., & Knupfer, N. (Eds.). (1993). Computers in education: Social, political, and historical perspectives. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 366 317)

This book is a collection of new works that inquire into the nature of media and technology as found and practiced in the social world of schooling. It creates a forum for investigating the social, institutional, historical, and epistemological relationships between media, education, culture, and technology. Contributions to the book include: (1) "Social Science, Social Movements, and the Production of Educational Technology in the U.S." (Thomas S. Popkewitz and David S. Shutkin); (2) "Education as Marketplace" (Howard Besser); (3) "Technology in Education: An Historical Perspective" (Alfred Bork); (4) "The Expert Teaching Machine: Unpacking the Mask" (Robert Muffoletto); (5) "The Mythical Anxieties of Computerization: A Barthesian Analysis of a Technological Myth" (Andrew R. J. Yeaman); (6) "Educational Technology, Curriculum Theory, and Social Foundations: Toward a New Language of Possibility" (J. Randall Koetting); (7) "Instructional Design and Human Practice: What Can We Learn From Grudy's Interpretation of Habermas' Theory of Technical and Practical Human Interests?" (Michael J. Streibel); (8) "Teachers and Educational Computing: Changing Roles and Changing Pedagogy" (Nancy Nelson Knupfer); (9) "Reading Educational Computer Programs" (Ann DeVaney); (10) "Aesthetics and the Social Production of Computer Graphics" (Kerry Freedman); (11) "A Learning Drama Approach to Using Computers with At-Risk Students" (Stanley Pogrow); (12) "Economic, Political, and Social Considerations in the Use of Global Computer-Based Distance Education" (Marina Stock McIsaac); and (13) "Computers and Copyright Concerns" (Landra L. Rezabek). The book contains a prologue about the contributing authors. References accompany each contribution.

National Study of School Evaluation. (1996). Technology: Indicators of quality information technology systems in K-12 schools. Schaumburg, IL: Author.

An emphasis is placed on developing a shared vision for the role of technology in the school and developing a shared responsibility across the school and community for bringing that vision to life in behalf of student learning. It is strongly recommended that the "Indicators" be used as a resource for school or district-wide committees charged with the responsibility for developing or evaluating their school's or district's technology plan, rather than be used solely by an individual faculty or staff member with responsibilities for coordinating the school's use of technology.

Niemiec, R. P., et al. (1989). Comparing the cost-effectiveness of tutoring and computer-based instruction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 5, 395-407. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 404 223)

Compares the effects of peer tutoring and computer-based instruction on student achievement and motivation through a meta-analysis of research. Cost effectiveness is also investigated via ratios which combine the effects of the intervention with estimates of implementation costs, and an appendix includes reviews of 10 cost-effectiveness research studies. (32 references)

Northbrook (IL) School District 28. (1999). Engaged learning resources [Online]. Available:

Illinois learning standards, engaged learning projects, journals, assessment and rubrics, Ameritech technology, reports and resources, and Internet classroom resourses are available on this page.

North Central Regional Educational Laboratory & Illinois State Board of Education. (1995). Learning through technology: A planning and implementation guide [Online]. Available:

Gives suggestions and resources to help in the technology implementation planning process. Conducting a technology needs assessment will help avoid costly implementation mistakes. Other essential components of planning are specifying the intended results of learning with technology and forming a technology planning committee through pre-planning efforts. Offers suggestions for professional development needs, strategies for keeping students and parents involved, and building community involvement and support in the technology implementation process.

North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium. (1997). Learning with technology profile tool [Online]. Available:

This document provides a self-study profiling tool for assessing current practice as a starting point for comprehensive planning that supports engaged learning and continuous school improvement. It can be used to assist schools in their efforts to enhance student achievement by integrating and implementing technology in schools.

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. (1998, Spring). Taking off: A teacher's guide to technology. Northwest Education, 3, 3.

Looks inside classrooms around the Northwest where teachers are using technology skillfully to teach subjects. Offers a guide to getting started, practical tips for using the Internet and selecting software.

Northwestern University, School of Education and Social Policy. (1997). CoVis project [Online]. Available:

Web page describes the CoVis (Learning Through Collaborative Visualization) Project, which, through advanced technologies, is attempting to transform science learning to better resemble the authentic practice of science. CoVis explores issues of scaling, diversity, and sustainability as they apply to the use of networking technologies to enable high school students to work in collaboration with remote students, teachers, and scientists. Web page includes bibliographies and some full-text papers describing CoVis research.

Novak, D. I., & Knowles, J. G. (1991, Summer). Beginning elementary teachers' use of computers in classroom instruction. Action in Teacher Education, 13, 43-51. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 443 809)

Describes a study that explored the instructional use of computers by beginning teachers, specifically the ways in which they used the computer, the influences on these uses, and the impact of these uses on their teaching and socialization into the profession.

November, A., & Staudt, C. (with Costello, M.A., & Huske, L.). (1998). Developing a school or district technology plan (Rev. ed). Pathways to School Improvement [Online]. Available:

Integrating technology into the schools will help prepare students to succeed in a rapidly changing world. Technology integration also is important because it supports the goals of education reform. To ensure that technology is effectively integrated into the schools, educators and community members must collaborate to create a formal technology plan. To be successful, a technology plan must promote meaningful learning and collaboration, provide for the needed professional development and support, and respond flexibly to change.

Oakland County (MI) Schools. (1991). Teaching and learning with technology (Evaluation Report). Pontiac, MI: Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 339 362)

The Teaching and Learning with Technology Project was funded by Oakland Schools, Oakland County (Michigan), in 1987 to bring together in an elementary school those technologies that will be key components of schools in the future with an instructional program designed to prepare students for the information age. The project had the following objectives: (1) to explore and identify classroom applications for educational technologies such as microcomputers, instructional television, videodisks, CD-ROM, and telecommunications; (2) to design staff development programs to assist teachers in making effective use of technology to accomplish curricular objectives; and (3) to study the impact of technology on teaching and learning. The project focused on third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms in one elementary school over a 3-year period; data was collected by classroom observation, interviews, and achievement tests. Results of comparisons between treatment and control classrooms indicated that the classrooms differed in the amount of technology available, number of technologies used, and ways in which technology was used to meet curricular objectives. The overall results of the experimental program were favorable. Appendices contain questionnaires, achievement test scores, a word checklist, a teacher survey instrument, statistical data, and 11 case studies of participating students. A separately published "Executive Summary" has been appended. (9 references)

Olds, H. F., Jr., Schwartz, J. L., & Willie, N. A. (1980). People and computers: Who teaches whom? Newton, MA: Education Development Center.

This early study, conducted with practicing teachers, examined: how knowledge about learning and teaching can be applied to using computers in education, how pedagogic insights of practicing teachers can promote the optimum use of computers in schools, and how the pedagogic problem of "how much control should learners have over their own education?" manifests itself in a computer environment. The authors concluded that when given a choice to do otherwise, educators do not limit their use of the computer to "doing traditional things in traditional ways."

Open School: Community Learning Network. (1997-1998). Integrate the Internet into the classroom [Online]. Available:

This site provides information on online experts, educational listserves, classroom "keypal" exchanges, and collaborative Internet projects around the world.

Parr, D. T. (1995). Increasing social awareness and geographical skills of fourth grade students with technology, online communications, and cooperative activities. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova Southeastern University: (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 389 270)

A practicum was designed to interest and motivate students to participate in social studies, an area in which lack of motivation has caused many elementary students to do poorly. An active learning, cooperative, and collaborative approach to social studies was taken with a class of 30 fourth graders. Through cooperative learning, simulated touring, thematic units, technology, and online communication, students became interested in social studies to the point that social studies became their favorite activity during "free time." Online experiences were provided through the National Geographic Society Kids Network project "What Are We Eating?" in which 12 schools located throughout the United States worked cooperatively. Analysis of the data revealed that the goals set forth for the practicum were met. Not only did the students become interested in social studies, but the new attitudes and participation were reflected in improved report card scores. Cooperative grouping and learning were essential elements of the approach. Appendix A lists 15 curriculum resources, and Appendix B gives telephone numbers for state instructional plans. (Contains 5 tables and 49 references.)

Phillips, J., & Soule, H. (1992, November). A comparison of fourth graders' achievement: Classroom computers versus no computers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Knoxville, TN. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 354 874)

This study assessed whether or not classroom-based micro-computer applications can help improve students' performance on standardized tests, and which subject areas such programs are most effective in for fourth graders in two Mississippi schools. The Teaching and Learning with Computers (TLC) program placed a local area network in the school with networked computers and a printer in each class in grades 2 through 5. Stanford Achievement Test scores for students at both schools were analyzed for spring 1991 and spring 1992. For School A, scores for 105 students represented pretest and posttest values, and scores for 231 students in School B served as controls. An analysis of variance was used to test for significant growth for each subtest and the total battery of the achievement test. Findings suggested that the TLC program had the effect of raising mathematics scores at School A. Mathematics was the only area in which post-TLC scores were significantly higher in the between-schools and within-school analyses. Teachers indicated that the mathematics courseware was used more than the courseware for other disciplines because it was the most appropriate for the existing curriculum. On the total battery, School A raised its mean score 8.87 points, a significant change. Overall, data suggest that the TLC program did have a favorable impact on the standardized test scores. Three tables present study data. (Contains 12 references.)

Poirot, J. L. (1992, August-September). Assessment and evaluation of technology in education: The teacher as researcher. Computing Teacher, 20, 9-10. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 451 823)

Discussion of the assessment and evaluation of educational technology focuses on appropriate research methodologies for use by elementary and secondary education teachers. Distinctions between assessment and evaluation are explained; the need for adequate planning is discussed; student benefits and attitudes are considered; and teacher needs and attitudes are addressed.

Poirot, J. L., & Knezek, G. A. (1992, November). Experimental designs for determining the effectiveness of technology in education. Computing Teacher, 20, 8-9. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 454 689)

This third in a series of articles on work conducted at the Texas Center for Educational Technology and the University of North Texas focuses on research designs for teachers to determine the impact of technology in the classroom. Highlights include research and the scientific method, qualitative versus quantitative research; and statistical inference. (three references)

Pullias, D. (1997, April). The future is...beyond modular. Technology Teacher, 56, 28-29. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 542 160)

Modular laboratories provide technology education students with valuable experiences, but they are not the total solution. Technology education can aid problem solving, technological literacy, and school-wide curriculum integration, but not within the limits of the modular environment.

Putnam Valley Schools. (2000). Educational standards and curriculum frameworks for technology [Online]. Available:

Links to technology standards (for students and teachers) developed by national organizations as well as various states.

Quigley, B. L., & Nyquist, J. D. (1992, July). Using video technology to provide feedback to students in performance courses. Communication Education, 41, 324-334. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 445 676)

Argues that video can provide effective feedback in performance courses (in speech communication) by creating opportunities for students to take the role of observer, identify and emphasize specific skills, receive feedback simultaneously with performance, and make comparisons.

Reganick, K. A. (1994, June). Using computers to initiate active learning for students with severe behavior problems. T.H.E. Journal [Online]. Available:

Briefly reviews research and proposes a study (apparently not yet implemented): "The basis of the proposed project is this: Using a desktop publishing program, students will create the Manatee Trader, a seasonal publication of classified ads designed to generate continuous reader interst. If circulation increases, students may expand this buy-sell-trade newspaper to include classified ads from other schools and businesses in the community. Customers will be charged 5% of the selling price for each item they advertise in the paper. Finally, students will decide in group meetings how the money generated from newspaper sales will be used."

Regional Technology in Education Consortia. (1996). Guiding questions for technology planning [Online]. Available:

Planning is an ongoing process that translates organizational, public policy, and technology needs into concrete actions. It allows educational organizations to take advantage of technology innovations while minimizing the negative impact of unexpected challenges. Planning provides a road map for the implementation of technology and can result in more efficient expenditure of limited resources and an improvement in student achievement.

Ridley, W. J., & Hull, M. H., Jr. (1986). Transforming American education: Reducing the risk to the nation. A report to the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education, by the National Task Force on Educational Technology. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 269 012)

Offered are 10 secrets that successful educators have learned about harnessing the power of technology to education. It is important that administrators understand both the capabilities and limitations of technology.

Riel, M. (1996). The Internet and the humanities: The human side of networking [Online]. Available:

This paper focuses on the human side of networking. How are classrooms being changed with the introduction of global links? What future can we see from the vantage point of satellites? The paper makes two main points: 1) networks bring more resources into the classroom, encouraging team teaching; 2) networks make it possible for students to leave the classroom, encouraging community participation.

Riffel, J., & Levin, B. (1997, January). Schools coping with the impact of information technology. Educational Management and Administration, 25, 51-64.

Discusses school responses to changes in information technology, based on survey data and case studies of four school districts in Manitoba, Canada. Financial, administrative, and political issues appear to have dominated the agenda. Debates over priorities, costs, and expectations of teachers have been central. Information technology has not yet been integrated into people's thinking about teaching and learning. (46 references)

Rodriguez, G., (with Knuth, R.). (2000). Providing professional development for effective technology use. Pathways to School Improvement [Online]. Available:

To realize the benefits of technology, schools must develop a plan for integrating technology into the curriculum. An effective technology plan is based on the shared vision of educators, parents, community members, and business leaders who have technological expertise. It ensures that technology strengthens existing curricula and supports meaningful, engaged learning for all students. It also specifies how the technology will be paid for and how its use will be supported.

Ruopp, R. (Ed). (1993). LabNet: Toward a community of practice. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Describes outcomes and implication of the evaluation of LabNet, a 3-year NSF-funded project operated by Technical Education Research Enters (TERC). Its goals were to encourage the use of student projects to enhance science learning; build a professional community of practice among high school science teachers; and exploit the potential of today's new technologies - connecting teachers via telecommunication and equipping students with powerful research tools in the form of sensors connected to microcomputers.

Salpeter, J. (Ed.). (1998, May). Taking stock: What does the research say about technology's impact on education? Technology and Learning [Online]. Available:

This online article presents interviews (conducted in the late 1990s) with eight experts in the field of instructional technology. The author concludes that there are no easy answers, and that research exists on both sides of the issue--pro and con. Whatever extent educators choose to rely on technology needs to be informed by research, so that the most effective uses of technology in the schools is achieved.

Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1991, January). Higher levels of agency for children in knowledge building: A challenge for the design of new knowledge media. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 37-68.

Although adults and children both have zones of proximal development in which more knowledgeable others play essential roles, there is a difference in executive control that is most salient in question-answer dialogue. Adult learners typically ask questions based on their perceived knowledge needs, whereas with school children, questions are typically asked by the teacher, based on the teacher's perception of the child's needs. Evidence shows that children can produce and recognize educationally productive questions and can adapt them to their knowledge needs. The challenge is to design environments in which students can use such questions to guide their building of knowledge, thus assuming a higher level of agency in learning. Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environments (CSILE), a computer-supported knowledge medium designed to support intentional learning, is described, with illustrations of children's use of it in cooperative knowledge building.

Scardamalia, M., Bereiter, C., McLean, R., Swallow, J., & Woodruff, E. (1989, January). Computer-supported intentional learning environments. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 51-68.

CSILE, which stands for Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments, is an educational knowledge media system. CSILE allows information in several media (text, drawings, graphs, timelines, etc.) to be entered into a common database where it is available to be retrieved, linked, commented on, rated, and so forth. The environments and operations of CSILE are designed to support students in more purposeful and mature, or intentional, processing of information. In this article eleven principles, based on recent cognitive research, are suggested for designing computer environments that support intentional learning. These principles include making knowledge-construction activities overt, maintaining attention to learning goals as opposed to other goals of an activity, providing process-relevant feedback, and giving students responsibility for contributing to each other's learning. Applications of these principles in CSILE are described, as well as observations from the first year of school try-out.

Schrock, K. (1998). WebQuests in our future: The teacher's role in cyberspace [Online]. Available:

Explains that WebQuest can be a model for teachers searching for ways to incorporate the Internet into the classroom on both a short-term or long-term basis. Shows a 16-slide Powerpoint presentation based on this information.

Secules, T., et al. (1997, March). Creating schools for thought. Educational Leadership, 54, 56-60. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 540 882)

Students participating in the technology-rich Schools for Thought program learn to acquire, evaluate, organize, and interpret information and communicate findings to their peers and to an adult, questioning audience. Evolving from three research-based programs, Schools For Thought features a rigorous, standards-based curriculum; careful content/process integration; feedback from many sources; authentic use of technology; and an inclusive learning community.

Seever, M. (1992). Achievement and enrollment evaluation of the central computers unlimited Magnet Middle School 1990-1991. Kansas City, MO: Kansas City School District. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 348 962)

This evaluation examines the progress made in the areas of achievement and enrollment by students at the Central Middle Magnet School in the Kansas City, Missouri, School District after the Computers Unlimited program had been in operation for 4 years. The evaluation design used data on student demographics gathered from the Research Office of the Kansas City, Missouri, School District (KCMSD) and from the Central Middle School administrators. Analysis of co-variance was used to determine whether Central Middle computer students scored statistically significantly higher on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) than a random selection of students from other district middle schools. A student cohort made up of students who had attended the school from 1989-1991 and who were in grades six, seven, and eight in those respective years, was also examined and broken down by minority/non minority status. It was found that results on both enrollment and achievement are mixed, but overall, when compared with the baseline year of 1986-87, there are signs of definite improvement in both areas. Four tables and three figures display the results of data analyses.

Serim, F., & Koch, M. (1996). NetLearning: Why teachers use the Internet. Sebastopol, CA: Songline Studios.

This book is about what teachers and their students are learning online, and their success stories show why the Internet has become invaluable in the classroom.

Shade, D. D. (Ed.). (1992). Children and computers abstracts. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 3, 97-100. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ 438 203)

Provides an overview of studies for possible application to instruction with children and computers and a starting point for in-depth research by listing bibliographic citations and author abstracts of nine selected studies in computer education.

Sheingold, K., & Hadley, M. (1990). Accomplished teachers: Integrating computers into classroom. New York: Bank Street College, Center for Technology in Education.

This report depicts work done by teachers, students, and researchers at schools collaborating with CTE experiments. Includes: Home School Connections (9th grade New Jersey class using laptop computers), Project-based Group Work (N.Y. City alternative school where students do multimedia inquiries/ presentations, andAlternative Assessment (engineering class at NYC high school where teachers use video to evaluate.)

Sivin-Kachala, J., & Bialo, E. R. (1994). Report on the effectiveness of technology in schools, 1990-1994. Springfield, VA: (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 371 726)

This report summarizes the educational technology research conducted from 1990 through 1994. It is based on 133 research reviews and reports on original research projects from both published and unpublished sources. This research varied in methodology: some studies used a technique for synthesizing and analyzing data from many different studies; some compared the use of technology to traditional instructional methods; some compared the use of technology under different learning conditions; and some utilized classroom observation. The report is divided into three sections: (1) "Effects of Technology on Student Achievement", (2) "Effects of Technology on Student Self-Concept and Attitudes about Learning", and (3) "Effects of Technology on Interactions Involving Teachers and Students in the Learning Environment." A list of conclusions drawn from the analysis is included, as well as a bibliography of the research cited. (Contains 170 references.)

Sivin-Kachala, J., & Bialo, E. R. (1994-1995, Winter). Educational technology, teaching, and the development of complex skills. Edutopia 2(2), 5, 9-10 [Online]. Available (requires Adobe Acrobat software):

The summary reads: "When does technology help students develop complex skills-learning that goes beyond mere rote memorization-such as the ability to write well or to engage in mathematical problem solving? Recent research points to several key factors. Technology makes a difference when the teacher has a clear vision of what students are to learn and how technology can help. Success also requires that the teacher include in his or her instructional plan ways to give students guidance in the processes and thinking strategies that make up the skill. Finally, the teacher needs to be actively involved in a variety of roles -- sometimes a lecturer, sometimes a coach; one day a consultant, the next day an editor."

Stahl, G., Sumner, T., & Owen, R. (1995, August). Share globally, adapt locally: Software assistance to locate and tailor curriculum posted to the Internet [Online]. Available:;/index.html

The abstract reads: "We have designed and prototyped a Teacher's Curriculum Assistant (TCA) that provides software support for teachers to make effective use of educational resources posted to the Internet. TCA maintains information for finding educational resources distributed on the Internet. It provides query and browsing mechanisms for exploring what is available. Tools are included for tailoring retrieved resources, creating supplementary materials, and designing innovative curriculum. TCA encourages teachers to annotate and upload successfully used curriculum to Internet servers to share their ideas with other teachers. In this paper we motivate the need for such computer support and discuss what we have learned from designing TCA."

Stahl, G., Sumner, T., & Repenning, A. (1996, November). Internet repositories for collaborative learning: Supporting both students and teachers [Online]. Available:

"This paper describes how software tools for Internet repositories can aid fundamental collaboration activities--locating, using adapting, and sharing--at both the teacher level (with the Teacher's Curriculum Assistant) and the student level (with the Remote Exploratorium). It illustrates how tools for educators and tools for students can be orchestrated into integrated classroom support." A discussion of issues involved with implementing technology in the classroom is presented. Researchers are from OWN Research, Inc. in Boulder, CO, and the Department of Computer Science and Center for LifeLong Learning and Design, University of Colorado at Boulder.

Statham, D. S., & Torell, C. R. (1996). Computers in the classroom: The impact of technology on student learning. Alexandria, VA: Consortium Research Fellow Program.

This report includes research directed toward defining the current state of knowledge with respect to the potential of computer technology in the classroom to enhance learning. This current study was undertaken in response to questions regarding whether the use of computer technology in education actually improves student performance. It consists of an analysis and summary of recent literature with respect to the efficacy of computer use in school populations of elementary and secondary students and at-risk students.

Stuebing, S., et al. (1992 April). Technology-rich learning environments in elementary and secondary schools: An interactive study of physical settings and educational change. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 354 868)

This paper reviews an ongoing study on the physical settings of education with technology at the elementary and high school levels. The study, which is multi-disciplinary in nature, is based in sites in the process of change in teaching strategies, using learning technology as a catalyst for this change to take place. The focus of the study is on the physical environment changes in two Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow Longitudinal Research Centers and examines the following issues: (1) the physical environment as an obstruction to learning with technology, (2) teacher belief systems connected to the organization and use of technology for learning, (3) support for teachers as a means of altering their perceptions of the importance of physical environment to create change, (4) possible changes in an existing classroom to enhance cooperative learning and student-centered learning, (5) and the architectural or physical changes necessary to enhance learning. The addendum, which comprises more than half the document, contains floor plans for incorporating technology in the rooms in the elementary and high school. (Contains 11 references.)

Tapscott, D. (1999). The rise of the Net generation: Growing up digital [Online]. Available:

The Web site is based on Tapscott's book. It discusses the influence of technology on youth and society as well as the impact of this trend.

Tinker, R. (1996). The whole world in their hands [Online]. Available:

Four major classes of networking use have the potential to make a major impact on science education over the next decade: resources, tools for inquiry, collaborative inquiry, and Net courses. This paper assumes that personal digital assistants (PDAs) will become a popular class of computers for precollege learners, and that configuring them as network clients will become an important way to overcome their inherent limitations. This means that the entire content of the networked world could be in every student's hand, with implications that go far beyond science education.

U. S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1989, November). Linking for learning: A new course for education (OTA-SET-430). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.

Enlisted over the past 5 years to meet the needs of geographically isolated schools, rapidly developing telecommunications technologies, united with trained and enthusiastic teachers, are enriching school environments. This study of distance learning analyzes various technological options, examines current development, and identifies how federal, state and local policies could encourage more efficient and effective use. This report complements OTA's assessment of use of computers in elementary and secondary education.

U. S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1988, September). Power on! New tools for teaching and learning (OTA-SET-379). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.

This report examines developments in the use of computer-based technologies, analyzes key trends in hardware and software development, evaluates the capability of technology to improve learning in many areas, and explores ways to substantially increase student access to technology. The role of the teacher, teachers' needs for training, and the impact of Federal support for educational technology research and development are reviewed as well.

U. S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1995, April). Teachers and technology: Making the connection (OTA-EHR-616). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.

Despite over a decade of investment in educational hardware and software, relatively few of the nation's 2.8 million teachers use technology in their teaching. This report seeks to identify: (a) some of the reasons teachers do not use technology; (b) what happens when they do use technology; (c) the factors that influence technology integration in schools, and (d) the roles that schools, districts, states, the private sector and the federal government play in helping teachers with new technologies.

U. S. Department of Education. (1996). Benefits of technology use. In Getting America's students ready for the 21st century: Meeting the technology literacy challenge. A report to the nation on technology and education [Online] Available:

"We now know--based on decades of use in schools, on findings of hundreds of research studies, and on the everyday experiences of educators, students, and their families--that, properly used, technology can enhance the achievement of all students, increase families' involvement in their children's schooling, improve teachers' skills and knowledge, and improve school administration and management. This chapter presents an overview of the benefits of technology use for education, as well as a discussion of the characteristics of successful technology-rich schools. It concludes with a call to continue investing in research and development in this area." Includes a section on "advanced skills" (problem solving and reasoning).

U. S. General Accounting Office. (1998). School technology: Five school districts' experiences in funding technology programs. (HAO/HES-98-35). Washington, DC: Author.

The report gives insight into the real-life issues confronting schools and school districts as they are incorporating technology into their curriculums.

Valdez, G., McNabb, M., Foertsch, M., Anderson, M., Hawkes, M., & Raack, L. (1999). Computer-based technology and learning: Evolving uses and expectations. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.

The conclusions of this report provide cumulative findings over the three phases, which are intended to help informed educators, policymakers, school administrators, school technical coordinators, and researchers make research-based decisions regarding the most beneficial approaches to technology use in K-12 educational settings into the 21st century.

Van Dusen, L., & Worthen, B. (1994),. Computer-based integrated learning systems: Research and theory. International Journal of Educational Research, 13-52.

Recently, studies have been initiated to evaluate computer-based integrated learning systems (ILSs). Among those characterized by good scientific design, few have found the ILS to have positive effects on student achievement or attitudes. These findings might lead one to believe that the ILS has little impact on valued student outcomes. However, in a large national study partially reported in this chapter, it was shown that there may be another explanation for such findings, namely that in most schools ILSs are not being implemented effectively. Analyses of effects of level of implementation on outcome measures revealed that with weak implementation there is little if any positive effect of the ILS and sometimes even a negative effect, whereas with strong implementation the ILS had a positive effect on student outcomes. The authors argue that evaluation of an ILS before its implementation fully meets the vendor's implementation standards is premature at best and may seriously underestimate the potential effectiveness of the ILS. The authors suggest why school implementation of ILSs may not be optimal, and outline implications of these findings for future ILS research and evaluation. Within the individualized setting, these students manage to overcome the environmental barriers by sharing learning experiences with others and providing help to students working nearby. Within the cooperative setting, most students assisted each other in solving the problems and progressing through the program. Future research may continue to evaluate the processes and products of three-way interactions between pairs of students and a computer, in comparison with two-way interactions between a single student and a computer or within a pair of students.

Vosniadou, S., DeCorte, E., Glaser, R., & Mandl, H. (Eds.). (1996). International perspectives on the design of technology-supported learning environments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This volume attempts to cover the need for a thorough theoretical analysis and discussion of the principles of system design enhanced learning environments. It presents examples of technology-supported learning environments that cover a broad range of content domains, from the physical sciences and mathematics to the teaching of language and literacy.

Weiner, H. (1994). Enhancing student performance in the social studies through the use of multimedia instructional technology (A Practicum Report). Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Nova University, Master of Science Practicum. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 383 598)

This report describes a social studies skills enhancement program developed and implemented to improve social studies performance in a public middle school (grades 6-8) in the southeastern United States. The targeted group consisted of four males and four females of mixed performance ability in a sixth grade class. The 12-week study focused on improvement in: (1) vocabulary skills on a pre- and post-test; (2) use of a CD-ROM card catalog, retrieval system, encyclopedia, and word processing software/hardware as measured by a teacher-made pre- and post-Multimedia Instructional Technology Identification and Usage Skills Tests; and (3) critical thinking map skills on a pre- and post-test. The program contained various activities and strategies using multimedia instructional technology for the improvement of these skills. By comparing the results of pretests and posttest, the study's conclusions indicated that all of the program's objectives were met successfully. Appendices include assessment materials and analysis of assessment data. Eight appendices include tables showing pre- and post-test results and a vocabulary skills midpoint test.

Whelan, C. (1997). Promoting high standards through engaged learning and technology [Online]. Available:

Includes Louisiana Content Standards Foundation Skills, Louisiana's Technology Initiative, Standards-Based Lesson Development and Teacher Training, and Overview of Funding and Resouces for Educational Technology.

Williamson, B. L. (1993). Writing with a byte. Computers: An effective teaching methodology to improve freshman writing skills. Cocoa, FL: Brevard Community College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 362 245)

A study was conducted at Florida's Brevard Community College (BCC) to determine the effectiveness of using artificial intelligence software to teach Freshman Composition. At BCC, Freshman Composition is taught in the computer lab, with student using WordPerfect to type their essays and Writer's Helper to flag various writing deficiencies. The students then revise on hard copies. Finally, using the word processor, they edit their essays based on the text analysis provided by Writer's Helper. The study sample included 67 students enrolled in four Freshman Composition sections. The students compared their first and last essays to discern whether they had reduced the use of "to be" verbs and vague words and pronouns, and found that they had used an average of 21.5 "to be" verbs in the final essays, compared to 24 "to be" verbs in the first essays; and that they had reduced their use of vague references. In addition, the students were surveyed regarding their attitudes towards using computers in the writing classroom. Responses from 72 students indicated that: (1) 98% of the students felt that using computers to assist in essay writing was helpful, with 76% finding them very helpful; (2) 97% indicated that using the computer greatly reduced the amount of time required for revision; (3) 97% felt that the textual analysis software was helpful with editing rough drafts; and (4) 100% of the students rated the use of computers in the writing laboratory as helpful and felt that future classes would also find this program useful.

Wilson, B. G., Teslow, J. L., Cyr, T. A., & Hamilton, R. (1994). Technology making a difference: The Peakview elementary school study. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology.

This case is a study about the impact of technology on a school. The network installed at Peakview includes multi-age groupings, cross-functional teams, and cooperative learning strategies. The Peakview study illustrates how technology can influence instruction and calls for computers to be integrated in the classroom rather than centralized in a computer lab.

Wishnietsky, D. H. (Ed.). (1994). Assessing the role of technology in education. Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation, Development, Research - Phi Delta Kappa.

Presents information that will help educators access technology and education and use it to help provide a potent learning environment where all students can achieve their full potential. Discusses the integration of technology in education, the role of administrators and teachers, effects on students, and emerging technologies.

Wolfe, E. W., et al. (1995, April). The influence of computers on student performance on a direct writing assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 383 741)

This study is an interim follow-up to an investigation of how computer use influences the writing process used by high school students on a direct writing assessment. Whether students with less comfort and experience with word processors would receive lower scores on word-processed essays than those with more comfort and experience with word-processing was studied. Also studied was whether differences in the length, neatness, accuracy, and tone of computer-written or hand-written essays by the same student could be attributed to the level of comfort in using a word processor. Interim results with 406 tenth graders indicate that students who have a greater level of comfort and experience using word processors for writing tend to score similarly on direct writing assessments whether the essays are composed on word processors or with pen and paper, while students who are less experienced using computers are more apt to perform better when their writing is composed with pen and paper. Fifteen tables present study data. Appendixes contain the student and teacher questionnaires. (Contains 22 references.)

Woodruff, E. R., & Heeler, P. J. (1993, March). Music appreciation and technology: An evaluation of a creativity-based approach using a MIDI environment. Paper presented at the International Conference on Technology and Education, Missouri. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 366 310)

One component of a model of creativity, the application of an understanding of elements, was explored through a study of college students applying their understanding of such musical elements as harmony, melody, rhythm, timbre, and dynamics. The 24 subjects were students in a music appreciation class, and the project was implemented using a microcomputer workstation with MIDI capabilities. Students first developed familiarity with the sequencing software and then practiced musical concepts by producing a melody. The Band-in-a-Box software program was used to produce accompaniment for their melodies. All but one subject completed the activities, and most completed them within the expected 2-hour time frame. To determine the effectiveness of this approach in facilitating learning musical concepts, a follow-up test was given at the end of the project. The mean score of the experimental group was higher than that of the 33-student control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. It is suggested that the creativity-based approach also yielded results not measured by the follow-up test, such as improved student attitude. Attachments present four lessons in the application of the sequencer. One table illustrates the discussion. (Contains 4 references.)

Wu, L. (1995). A report of a project study: Software design for learning

Reports on a research project called Instructional Software Design Project (ISDP). ISDP focused on "using technology to support excellence in teaching, learning, and thinking with computers--technology as a medium for expression.

Zwier, J. (1999). Bringing it all together (K-12 Connection Articles) [Online] Available:

Microsoft K-12 interviewed two award-winning teachers who have been recognized for their creativity and skill in integrating technology into their curriculums.

This bibliography was compiled by the Resource Center of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.

Date posted: August 2000

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